Mark 10


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel, which begins at Mark 1.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans begins at To the Romans.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

10 1 And rising up from there he went into the region of Judea and across the Jordan, and again a crowd gathered to him, and as [was his] habit, again he was teaching them. 2 And the Pharisees came to [him], challenging him whether [it was] lawful for a man to release [‘divorce’] his wife, testing him. 3 But answering back he said to them, “What did Moses command you?” 4 And they said, “Moses permitted [‘entrusted’] to write a divorce scrip and to release [her].” 5 But Jesus said to them, “Toward your hardness of heart he wrote this commandment for you. 6 But on the other hand, from the beginning of creation male and female he made them; 7 for the sake of this a man will abandon his father and mother 8 and the two will become one flesh so that it is no longer two but one body. 9 Therefore, what god yoked together, let not a man separate.”

10 And again, in the house the disciples were demanding [an explanation] about this. 11 And he says to them, “Whoever would release his wife and marry another commits adultery against her; 12 and if she who releases her husband should marry another, she commits adultery.”

13 And they brought children to him so that he might touch them; but the disciples objected to them. 14 And seeing [this] Jesus was angry and said to them, “Let the children come to me, do not prevent [‘hinder’] them, for the kingdom of god is for such as these. 15 Listen carefully, whoever would not hail [‘accept’] the kingdom of god like a child [does] will not by any means enter into it.” 16 And taking them in his arms, he blessed [them], placing [his] hands upon them.

17 And as he was leaving, on the road one [of them] ran up and fell before him, begging him, “Good teacher, what shall I do that I might inherit eternal life?” 18 So Jesus said to him, “Why do you say ‘good’ to me? No one [is] good except one – god. 19 You know the commands, “Do not murder, Do not commit adultery, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Do not defraud, Honor your father and mother.” 20 And he said to him, “Teacher, all these things I observed [‘guarded’] from my youth.” 21 So Jesus, looking upon him, loved him and said to him “You lack one [thing]; go, sell what you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven, and follow me hither.” 22 But frowning upon this word, he went away annoyed; for he was in possession of many things [much stuff].

23 And looking around, Jesus says to his disciples, “How peevish [discontent] [are] those who have money [or ‘things’] [thinking they can] enter the kingdom of god.” 24 And the disciples wondered at his words. But Jesus again answering says to them, “Children, how hard it is [for those trusting in riches (A, K, C, + many)] to enter the kingdom of god; 25 it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than [for] a rich man to enter the kingdom of god.” 26 And the [disciples] were very amazed [‘frightened’], saying to themselves, “So can anyone be saved?” 27 Looking directly at them [looking them right in the face] Jesus says, “By men [it is] impossible, but not by god; for everything is possible [can be done] by god.”

28 Peter, taking the lead [or ‘began’] to say to him, “Look, we have forsaken everything and followed you.” 29 Jesus said, “Listen carefully, there is no one who, forsaking house or brothers or sisters or mothers or fathers or children or country [‘land’] for my sake and for the sake of the gospel, 30 except he will receive one hundred times that now, in this time, houses and brothers and sisters and mothers and children and lands with harassment, and in the age to come, eternal life. 31 And many [who are] first [‘prestigious’] will be last and [those who are] last [will be] first.”

32 And he was on the road going up to Jerusalem, and Jesus was going in front of them, and they were wondering and those following were afraid. And joining up again with the twelve he began to say to them the things which were about to take place, 33 οτι, “Behold, let us go up into Jerusalem, and the son of man will be betrayed [‘handed over’] to the priesthood and to the scribes, and they will condemn him to death and they will hand him over to the nations 34 and they will make sport of him [‘mock’], and spit upon him and whip him and they will kill [him], but after three days he will arise.”

35 And Jacob and John, the sons of Zebedai, came up before him, saying to him, “Teacher, we wish that whatever we should ask you will do for us.” 36 So he said to them, “What do you wish I should do for you?” 37 And they said to him, “Give [it] to us that one [of us] on the right and one on the left side of you will be seated in your glory.” 38 Jesus said to them, “You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup which I drink or to be immersed with the same baptism as me?” 39 They said, “We are able.” So Jesus said to them, “The cup which I drink you will drink, and you will be immersed [with] the same baptism with which I am immersed, 40 but to sit on my right or left is not mine to give, but rather, [it is given] to those for whom it was arranged.” 41 And hearing, the ten began to argue concerning Jacob and John. 42 And calling them [to him] Jesus says to them, “You know that those who are supposed to rule over the nations exercise authority over them and the greatest of them exercise authority over them. 43 But it is not this way for you, rather, whoever should wish to become great among you will be your servant, 44 and whoever should wish to be first among you will be servant of all; 45 for the son of man also did not come to be served but to serve and to give his life as atonement [‘ransom,’ ‘redemption’] against many.”

46 And he went into Jericho. And as he and his disciples and a largish crowd were leaving Jericho, Bartimaios, a son of Timai, a blind beggar, was sitting by the road. 47 And hearing that it was Jesus the Nazarene, he began to shout and say, “Jesus, son of David, have mercy on me!” 48 And many rebuked him that he should be quiet; but all the more did he shout, “Son of David, have mercy on me!” 49 And Jesus stood [still] and said, “Call him.” And they called the blind man, saying to him, “Take heart, get up, he calls you.” 50 So casting off his tunic, he leapt up [and] went to Jesus. 51 And answering, Jesus said, “What do you want me to do?” And the blind man said to him, “Rabbi, [I wish] that I might see.” 51 And Jesus said to him, “Go, your faith has saved you.” And then [ευθυς] he received sight and he followed him on the road.


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Mark 9


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel, which begins at Mark 1.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans begins at To the Romans.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

9 1 And he said to them, “Listen carefully οτι, there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see the kingdom of god having arrived in power.”

2 And after six days Jesus took Peter and Jacob and John and led them up to a mountaintop by themselves. And he changed his form [μετεμορφωθη] before their [eyes], 3 and his garments became very white like lightening, way more pure [such that] upon the earth it is not possible to whiten anything! 4 And Elijah and Moses appeared to them and they were speaking with Jesus. 5 And Peter, discerning [who they were] says to Jesus, “Rabbi, it is good we are here,” and, “Let us make three tents, one for you, and one for Moses and one for Elijah.” 6 For he did not know what was appropriate [αποκρινω, ‘to choose,’ ‘distinguish’], for they were becoming frightened. 7 And a cloud formed, overshadowing them, and there came a voice from the cloud, “This is my beloved son, listen to him,” 8 And suddenly, looking around, they no longer saw anything but Jesus alone with them.

9 And while descending from the mountain he commanded them that they should not report what they saw, except when the son of man would be raised from death. 10 And they kept the story [λογον] to themselves, wondering what it is to be raised from death. 11 And they challenged him, saying οτι, “The scribes are saying that ‘Elijah must come first’?” 12 But he shot back [εφη from εφιημι, ‘to send against,’ ‘launch’] at them, “‘Elijah, when he comes first will restore all things;’ [Jesus quotes the slogan and then makes a comparison:] and how is it written about the son of man? That he should suffer greatly and be ignored? 13 However, I say to you that surely [οτι και] Elijah has come, and they made of him what they wished, exactly as it is written about him.”

14 And going to the disciples they saw a large crowd around them and scribes harassing [συζητουντας, ‘to inquire’ with the connotation of ‘dispute’ – συζητησις] them. 15 And then the entire crowd seeing him were amazed and running to [him] they welcomed him. 16 And he demanded of them, “Why are you harassing them?” 17 And one from the crowd answered, “Teacher, I brought my son to you, having a mute spirit; 18 and whenever it seizes him, it dances him [or ‘throws him down’] and he foams and grinds [his] teeth [or ‘squeaks,’ ‘gibbers’] and he is incontinent; and I asked your disciples that they might cast it out but they were not strong [enough].” 19 And he answered them saying, “What a faithless generation! How long am I to be with you? How long will I hold you up? Bring him to me.”

20 And they brought him to him. And when the spirit saw [Jesus], then it rent [the boy], and falling to the ground he rolled about, foaming [at the mouth]. 21 And [Jesus] asked his father, “How much time is it since this began with him?” And he said, “From childhood; 22 and often even into the fire it threw him and into water, in order to destroy him; but if anyone is able, let him help us, have mercy upon us!” 23 And Jesus said to him, “If I am able? All things are possible for the one who believes.” 24 Then the father of the child shouted saying, “I believe; help my unbelief!” 25 And Jesus, seeing the crowd running up together, rebuked the unclean spirit [πνευματι τω ακαθαρτω, not διαμονια], saying to it, “Mute and deaf spirit, I command you come out from him and do not enter him any longer.” 26 And shouting and greatly rending [‘attacking’] him, it went out; and he became as if he were dead, so that many were saying that he was dead. 27 But Jesus, taking hold of his hand, raised him and stood [him] up.

28 And when he and his disciples went into the house by themselves, they challenged him, “Why were we not able to cast it out?” 29 And he said to them, “This genus [γενος, ‘type,’ ‘species’] is not at all able to go out except by prayer and fasting [p45vid and others].”

30 And they left there, going through Galilee, and did not wish anyone to know; 31 for he was teaching his disciples and was saying to them οτι, “The son of man will be betrayed into men’s hands and they will kill him, and after three days being dead, he will rise.” 32 But they did not understand the saying [ρημα] and were afraid to ask him.

33 And they went into Kapharnaoum and when he came to be in the house he challenged them, “What were you talking about along the way?” 34 But they kept silent; for along the way they were arguing with each other [regarding] who [was] greatest. 35 And sitting down he called the twelve and says to them, “If anyone wishes to be first, let him be last of all and servant of all.” 36 And taking a child, he stood it [αυτο, neuter] in the midst of them; and taking it in his arms he said to them, 37 “Whoever would hail [‘graciously receive’] one child such as this, hails me, and whoever welcomes me does not honor me but rather [he welcomes] the one who sent me.”

28 John asked him, “Teacher, we saw someone casting out demons in your name and we prevented him because he was not following us.” 39 And Jesus said, “Do not prevent him. For no one who does powerful [works] by my name is also able to immediately [ταχυ, ‘quickly’] speak evil of me. 40 For who[ever] is not against us is for us. 41 For whoever would give you a cup of water to drink in my name because you are of Christ, mark my words, οτι he will never lose his reward. 42 And whoever would scandalize one of these little ones who believe, it would be better for him if a giant millstone were put round his throat and he be cast into the sea. 43 And if your hand scandalizes you [causes you to be tripped up, seduced] cut it off; it is better that you continue life crippled than to go into gehenna with two hands, into the never-ending fire. 45 And if your foot scandalizes you, cut it off; it is better that you continue life lame than to be cast into gehenna with two feet [א omits v 46: ‘where their worm does not end and the fire is not extinguished’]. 47 And if your eye offends you, pluck it out; it is better that you go into the kingdom of God one-eyed than to be cast into hell having two eyes, 48 where their worm does not end and the fire is not extinguished. 49 For all will be salted with fire. 50 Salt is good, but if the salt becomes used up [or ‘ceases’], by what will it be seasoned? Have salt in yourselves and be reconciled [be at peace] with each other.”


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Mark 8


@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel, which begins at Mark 1.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans begins at To the Romans.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

8 1 In those days, when again there was a large crowd and they did not have anything to eat, calling the disciples he says to them, 2 “I feel sorry for the crowd, because for three days already they stayed with me and they do not have anything to eat, 3 and if I should dismiss them fasting to their homes, they will faint in the roadway; and some of them sent [ιημι] from a great distance.” 4 And his disciples answered him οτι, “How is it possible to feed anyone bread here in the desert?” 5 And he asked them, “How many loaves do you have?” and they said, “Seven.” 6 And he sent message to the crowd to sit down on the ground; and taking the seven loaves [and] giving thanks, he broke [them] and gave [them] to his disciples so that they might distribute [them], and they gave [them] to the crowd. 7 And they had a few little fish; and he said a blessing on them and these [also] were distributed. 8 And they ate and were satisfied, and they took up the broken left-overs [in] seven hand-baskets. 9 Now there were about four-thousand [people] and he dismissed them. 10 And then he embarked in the boat with his disciples, going into the province [‘portion,’ ‘part’] of Dalmanoutha.

11 And the Pharisees went out and went up to see him, seeking from him a sign from heaven, testing him. 12 And sighing loudly with his spirit, he says, “Why does this generation seek a sign? Listen carefully, this generation might [ει δοθησεται ‘if it should be possible,’ i.e., ‘maybe’] receive a sign.” 13 And leaving them again, embarking in the boat, he went away to the other side.

14 And they forgot to take bread and except for one loaf they did not have [any] with them in the boat. 15 And he ordered them, saying, “Pay attention!” [ορατε] [and] watch out for the leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven of Herod [‘the Herodians’ p45].” 16 And they were discussing with each other οτι, “Don’t they have bread?” 17 And knowing [what they were saying] he says to them, “Why are you arguing because you have no bread? Don’t you know or understand? Have your hearts been hardened [‘petrified’]? 18 Having eyes you do not see and having ears you do not hear, and you do not remember 19 that [οτι] when the five loaves were broken for five thousand, you took up how many baskets full of fragments?” They said, “Twelve.” 20 “[And] when the seven [loaves were broken] for the four thousand, how many baskets full of fragments did you take up?” And they said [to him, sic], “Seven.” 21 And he said to them, “Do you not yet understand?”

22 And he went into Bethsaïda. And they brought to him a blind [person] and implored [‘called to’] him so that he might touch him. 23 And taking hold of the hand of the blind [man] he led him out of the town and spitting in his eyes, he placed [his] hands upon him asking him, “Can you see?” 24 And looking up he said, “I see men [such] that as trees I see [them] walking about.” 25 So again [Jesus] set [his] hands upon his eyes, and he looked straight ahead and he was completely restored and he could see all [the faces, εμβλεπω] clearly. 26 And he sent him into his house saying, “Do not go into the town anymore.”

27 So Jesus and his disciples went out into the country of Kaisareias Philippou; and on the way he challenged his disciples, saying to them, “What do men say that I am?” 28 And they said to him that they were saying, “John the Baptist, and others Elijah and others still that you are the Prophet [Moses].” 29 And he challenged them, “But you, who do you say I am?” Answering, Peter says to him, “You are the Messiah.” 30 And he ordered them that they should say nothing [not one thing] concerning him [or ‘it’].

31 And he began to teach them that [it is] necessary for the son of man to suffer greatly and to be rejected by the elders and the chief priesthood and the scribes, and to be killed and after three days, to be raised; 32 and openly he was speaking the word. And Peter, taking ahold of him, began objecting to him. 33 But turning and seeing Peter [was] the [one] of his disciples objecting, he says, “Get away behind me, Satan, for you do not intend the things of god but rather, [you only understand] the things of men.”

34 And summoning the crowd with his disciples he said to them, “If someone wishes to follow after me, let him take up his cross and follow me. 35 For whoever would wish to save his life [‘psyche,’ ψυχη (traditionally, ‘soul’)] will lose it; but whoever will lose his life for the sake of the gospel will save it. 36 For what profit is there for a man to gain the whole world but be ‘fined’ his soul? 37 For what will a man give in exchange for his life? 38 For whoever would be ashamed of me and mine in this adulterous and sinful generation, also the son of man will be ashamed of him, when he comes [back] in the glory of his father and [with] the angels of eternity.”


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Mark 7


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel, which begins at Mark 1.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans begins at To the Romans.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

7 1 And the Pharisees gathered to him and some of the scribes came from Jerusalem. 2 And they saw some of his disciples, that with ‘common’ [‘profane’] hands, that is ‘unwashed,’ they were eating the bread 3 – for the Pharisees and all the Judeans, unless they frequently washed [their] hands, would not eat, obeying the tradition of the elders, 4 and [some mss, ‘when they came’] from the market unless they cleansed, they did not eat, and many other such traditions they obeyed, washing cups and pint measures and copper implements [and beds, sic, D, 33] – 5 and the Pharisees and scribes inquired of him, “Why do your disciples not go about according to the tradition of the elders, but with dirty hands they eat the bread?” 6 And he said to them, “Isaiah correctly prophesied concerning you hypocrites, as it is written:

This people worships me with [their] lips [‘place their lips before me’]
but their heart is far from me;
7 falsely do they worship me
teaching teachings [that are] commands of men.
[Isa 29:13 LXX]

8 forsaking the commandment of god, you obey the tradition of men.” 9 And he said to them, “Surely [‘most certainly’] you set aside the commandment of god so that you might stand by your tradition. 10 For Moses said, “Honor your father and mother,” and “One who slanders father or mother, let him be put to death.” 11 But you are saying, “If a man should say to father or mother, ‘[It is] Korban,’ which is ‘Gift,’ whatever you have gained from me,” canceling the word of god by your tradition which you pass on; and many things of equal quality you do.”

14 And again, summoning the crowd he said to them, “Hear me, all [of you] and take note! 15 There is nothing [which] from outside a man going into him which gives him [to be] ‘common’ [‘profane’] but rather, the thing outside the man going out is the thing that profanes the man [א omits; A, D, K, 33 incl., ‘Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear.’]”

17 And when he went into the house [away] from the crowd, his disciples asked him [to explain] the parable. 18 And he says to them, “Thus also are you ignorant? Do you not understand [νοεω] that everything [which is] outside going into the man does not give him ‘common status’ [‘to be profane’] 19 because it does not go into his heart but into his belly, and into the toilet [it] goes out, cleansing [‘washing,’ ‘healing’] all [types of] food?” 20 Then he said οτι, “That which out of the man goes out, that is what profanes the man. For [what comes] out from the heart of the man, the [inner] dialogue, the evil coming out [including] perversion, fraud, murder, 22 adultery [‘seduction’], greed [πλεονεξιαι], cowardice [πονηριαι, ‘wickedness’], cunning treachery [δολος, ‘deceit’], brutality [ασελγεια, ‘rape’], evil eyes [‘envy,’ ‘hatred’], blasphemy [‘gossip,’ ‘lies’], arrogance, thoughtlessness – all these evil things come out and defile the man.”

24 Then, rising up from there, he left, going into the region of Tyre and Sidon [א], and he went into a house, wishing no one to know [where he was], but he was not able to escape [‘elude’]; 25 but then a woman, hearing about him, whose daughter had an unclean spirit, came [and] fell down [or ‘threw herself down’] at his feet; 26 now the woman was Greek, being from Surophonikissa; and she asked him that the demon [δαιμονιον, ‘divine operation,’ ‘demonic activity,’ ‘consciousness’] be cast out from her daughter. 27 And he said to her, “First let the children be fattened, for it is not good to take the bread from the children and throw it to the dogs [‘puppies,’ ‘whelps;’ this is so cool! Jesus is joking with her because she’s from the Northern Kingdom of Israel (the ‘dogs’), a traditional rival of the Judeans (the ‘children’).  She demonstrates an excellent sense of humor and Jesus grants her request because of it]. 28 But she answered and said to him, “Lord, even the puppies under the table eat the crumbs from the children.” 29 And he said to her, “Because of this word you may go, the demon[ic power, consciousness, action] has left your daughter.” 30 And returning to her house, she found the child having thrown herself upon the bed and the demon having left.

31 And again, he left the region of Tyre, going through Sidon to the Sea of Galilee, up to the midst of the region of Decapolis. 32 And they brought to him a mute, totally [και] unable to speak and they implored him that he might place [his] hand on him. 33 And taking him away from the crowd by himself, he put his fingers in his ears and he stuck spit from his tongue [in them], 34 and raising his eyes to heaven, he sighed loudly and says to him, “Ephphatha,” which is, “Be opened” [or “Be explained.” Jesus is demonstrating, by this display, that they could not ‘explain’ the man’s illness. Not only does Jesus heal the man but he reveals that the man was not mute but deaf – the problem is both healed and revealed]. 35 And then his ears [his ability to hear, ακοαι] were opened [‘explained’], and then the bondage of his tongue was released and he was speaking clearly. 36 And he ordered them that they should say nothing; but no matter what he commanded them, they all the more excessively publicized [him]. 37 And they were frightened out of their wits to the point of hysteria [υπερπερισσως, ‘surpassingly,’ εξεπλησσοντο, ‘terrorized’] saying, “He has done all [this] correctly, and he makes the mute [able] to hear, and/so [the] dumb [able] to speak.”


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Mark 6


@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel, which begins at Mark 1.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans begins at To the Romans.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

6 1 And he went out from there and came into his fatherland [πατριδα, ‘of one’s fathers’], and his disciples followed him. 2 And when the Sabbath came, he began to teach in the synagogue, and when they heard [him] many were fearfully astonished [εκπλησσω, ‘to frighten out of one’s senses’], saying, “Whence to this one these things [ποθεν τουτου ταυτα]?” and, “How [was] such wisdom given to this one?” and “[How were] such powerful things wrought by his hands? 3 Is this not the artisan, the son of Mary and brother of Jacob and Josetos and Jude and Simon? And are not his sisters here with us?” And they were scandalized [‘confused,’ ‘stumbled’] by him. 4 And Jesus said to them οτι, “A prophet is not dishonored except in his own country and by his family and in his house.” 5 And he was not able to perform anything powerful there, except [only] a few sick, placing hands upon, he healed. 6 And he marveled because of their unbelief. And he went round to the villages round about teaching.

7 And he called the twelve [to himself] and began to send them two by two, also giving them power over the unclean spirits, 8 and he commanded them to the effect that they take nothing on the road except only a staff, not bread, not a pouch, no money in the belt, 9 but binding on sandals, and not wearing two tunics. 10 And he said to them, “Whenever you go into a house stay there until you leave that place. 11 And whatever place will not receive you kindly or listen to you, when you go out from there, shake off the dirt from the bottom of your feet unto a testimony for them.” 12 And departing, they proclaimed that they should repent, 13 and they cast out many demons and anointed with oil many sick and they were healed.

14 And King Herod heard, for his name had become famous, and he said οτι, “John the Baptist is raised from death and because of this the powers are working in him.” 15 But others were saying οτι, “It is Elijah;” and others were saying οτι, “He is a prophet like one of the prophets.” 16 But Herod, when he heard said, “John, whom I beheaded is raised.” 17 For Herod himself had sent and seized John and bound him in prison because of Herodias, the wife of Philip his brother, because he married her; 18 for John said to Herod οτι, “It is not legal for you to have the wife of your brother.” 19 But Herodias held it against him and wished to kill him, but was not able; 20 for Herod feared John, knowing that he [was] a righteous and holy man, and he kept him safe [‘watched him closely,’ ‘guarded’] and when he listened to him often, he was at a loss to know what to do, but he listened to him gladly.

21 And there came a day of good opportunity when Herod, for his birthday threw a party for his chief courtiers and legion commanders and the prominent [πρωτοις, ‘first’] people of Galilee, 22 and when his daughter by Herodias came in [to the party] and when she danced, she pleased Herod and his guests. The king said to the girl, “Ask me whatever you wish and I will give it to you;” 23 and he swore to her many times over οτι, “Whatever you ask me, I will give it to you, up to half my kingdom.” 24 And she went out [and] said to her mother, “What shall I ask?” And she said, “The head of John the Baptist.”

25 And then [ευθυς – this particle seems to often be an indicator of action that is unbelievable or somehow extraordinary, like a storyteller saying….”and then you just won’t believe what happened, ευθυς! The fact that it was used as a narrative indicator (similar to the Hebrew ויהי, ‘and behold,’ or ‘and it happened…’- a narrative indicator and possible memory cue in Old Testament prose) seems to be related to the nature of the literature, which is revelatory; therefore, there should be, one would expect, an element of incredulousness surrounding the stories, a level of enthusiasm that we seem to have lost. The word ευθυς comes from the word ιθυς – ‘straight’ or ‘direct,’ so ευθυς is short for ‘I’m telling you the truth, that is exactly what happened, straight from what happened.’ It is the tool of an experienced storyteller (or storytelling culture) to bring attention to the following action, to keep the audience’s attention – remember, they are listening, not reading. Ευθυς is more an auditory device than a literary one.]…she went in with speed to the king to ask, saying, “I wish that immediately [εξαυτης – if ευθυς means ‘immediately’ why is it not used here?] be brought to me on a pinaki [πινακι, a ‘little tablet,’ esp. that on which judges wrote their verdict] the head of John the Baptist. 26 And the king became exceedingly sorrowful because of the oaths; however, [because of] the guests he did not wish to set her aside; 27 so then [ευθυς] the king sent a guard [whom] he ordered to bring his head. And going out, he beheaded him in prison. 28 And he brought his head upon a pinaki [‘judgement tablet’] and gave it to the girl, and the girl took it to her mother. 29 And when his disciples heard, they went and took his body [πτωμα, ‘fallen’] and placed it in a tomb.

30 And the disciples sent [by Jesus] came back to Jesus and reported to him all that they had done and [all] they had taught. 31 And he says to them, “Come out here by yourselves into a desert [‘solitary,’ ‘wilderness’] place and rest a little.” For many people were coming and going, and they could not eat at leisure. 32 And they went on the boat to a solitary place alone. 33 And many saw them going and they knew [where they were going (?)] and they ran together on foot from all the cities and met him there. 34 And going out, he saw a large crowd and he had compassion for them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many [things].

35 And already many hours had come [and gone] when the disciples came to him saying οτι, “This is a desert place and [it’s been] quite a while [‘already many hours’]; 36 let them go so that they can go to the surrounding farms and buy food for themselves to eat.” 37 But answering he said to them, “You give them [something] to eat.” And they said to him, “Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii [worth] of bread and give [it] to them to eat?” 38 But he says, “How much bread do you have? Go and see.” And knowing, they said, “Five, and two fish.” 39 And he ordered them to make them all sit group by group on the pale green grass. 40 And they sat down by companies in hundreds and fifties. 41 And receiving the five loaves [and] two fish, raising his eyes to heaven, he blessed [them] and broke the loaves and gave them to the disciples so they could distribute them, and the two fish he divided among all. 42 And they all ate and were filled, 43 and they took up twelve baskets of fragments left over and (also) from the fish. 44 And the ones who ate were five-thousand men.

45 And next he forced his disciples to embark in the boat and to go across to the other side to Bethsaïda, so that he could lose the crowd. 46 And he, sending them away, went up into the mountain to pray. 47 And when evening came, the boat was again in the middle of the sea, and he alone [was] on the land. 48 And beholding them being put to the test at the rowing, for the wind was against them, [at] about the fourth watch of the night, he came to them walking upon the sea, and he indeed was able to pass over to them. 49 But the ones seeing him upon the sea walking about thought that he was a ghost [φαντασμα], and they screamed; 50 for they all saw him and they were frightened. And then he started to speak with them, and he says to them, “Courage, it is I; do not be afraid.” 51 And he went aboard to them into the boat and the wind quieted, and they were very [λιαν] [extremely, εκ περισσου, sic] astonished. 52 For they did not understand about the loaves, but rather, their heart had been hardened [‘petrified,’ ‘turned to stone’].

53 And crossing over onto the land, he went into Gennessaret and they weighed anchor. 54 And when they went out of the boat, right away they recognized him 55 [as] he made a circuit of the whole countryside, and they began to bear upon cots those having illness [to] where they heard that he was. 56 And when he would go into a town or into a city or into a farm, those assembled would place [before] him the sick and called him so that they might even just grasp the hem of his garment; and whoever would touch it was saved [from their disease.


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Mark 5


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel, which begins at Mark 1.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans begins at To the Romans.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

5 1 And they went across the sea into the Gerasene countryside. 2 And then, as he disembarked from the boat a man with [εν] an unclean spirit stepped up to meet him. 3 He it was who dwelt among the tombs, and no one could bind him any longer with any fetters. 4 Because often with fetters and chains they had bound him but he would break the chains and fetters from himself, breaking [them] to pieces, so no one [was] strong [enough] to conquer him; 5 and so every night and day among the tombs and in the hills he would cry out and cut himself with stones.

6 And seeing Jesus from far off, he ran up to meet [him] and prostrated himself before him 7 and shouting in a loud voice he said, “What is there between you and me, Jesus, son of the highest god? Give me your solemn oath, by god, you will not torture me!” 8 For [Jesus] was saying to him, “Come out, you unclean spirit, from the man.” 9 And he asked him, “What is your name?” And he said to him, “My name is Legion, because we are many.” 10 And he [the Legion] demanded many times of him that he not send them out of the countryside.

11 Now there was near the hillside a large herd of pigs grazing; 12 and they implored him, saying, “Send us into the pigs so that we might enter into them.” 13 And he permitted them [επετρεψεν, not αφιημι]. And coming out, the unclean spirits went into the pigs, and the herd rushed over the cliffs into the sea, about two thousand of them, and they drowned in the sea. 14 And the herdsmen were afraid, and they told the city and the farm country; and they went to see what was going on; 15 and they came to Jesus and beheld the one who was demon-possessed sitting clothed and sane, the one having had the Legion, and they were afraid. 16 And the ones who saw how it happened to the one demon-possessed, and concerning the pigs, narrated to them. 17 And they began to implore him to depart from their hill country. 18 And as he was embarking in the boat, the demoniac implored him in order that he might be with him. 19 But he did not allow [αφιημι] him, rather, he said to him, “Go up to your house and to your family and tell them what the master has done for you and [that] he has had mercy on you.” 20 And he ascended and began to proclaim in the Decapolis what Jesus did for him, and everyone was amazed.

21 And when Jesus had ferried over [p45 omits ‘in the boat’] again [p45 omits ‘across’], a large crowd came together around him, and they were on the seashore. 22 And one of the synagogue leaders, named Jarius, came and seeing him fell at his feet 23 and he implored him many times saying οτι, “My daughter is dying, so come place your hands on her so that she might be saved and live.” 24 And he went up with him.

And a large crowd followed him and jostled him. 25 And a woman, being in a flow of blood twelve years 26 and suffering much under many healers, spending all she had, yet she was not assisted but rather, [she was] much worse, came up, 27 having heard about Jesus. She came up with the crowd ready to touch his cloak; 28 for she said οτι, “If I can just touch [εαν αψωμαι καν, “even if I should touch – the καν gives the emphasis even to the εαν – ‘if’] his garment, I will be rescued. 29 And then [ευθυς] the source of her bleeding dried up and she knew in [her] body that she was healed from the affliction [μαστιγος].

30 And then [ευθυς] Jesus, knowing in himself that power had gone out from him, being turned about in the crowd, he said, “Who touched my garment?” 31 And his disciples said to him, “Look at the crowd pressing with you and you say, ‘Who touched me’?” 32 And they were looking about to see the one who would have done this. 33 But the woman was [so] afraid and trembling with fear, knowing what had happened to her, she went and fell before him, and told him the entire truth. 34 And he said to her, “Daughter, your faith has saved you; go peacefully and be healed from [απο] your affliction.

35 Yet, while he was speaking, they came from the synagogue leader’s [house] saying οτι, “Your daughter died; why trouble the teacher?” 36 But Jesus, hearing this message [λογον] they had given says to the synagogue leader, “Fear not, only believe.” 37 And he did not permit [αφιημι] anyone to go with him except Peter and Jacob and John, the brother of Jacob. 38 And coming into the house of the synagogue leader, he sees a raucous crowd and many [of them] weeping and wailing, 39 and going in, he says to them, “Why are you making a ruckus and weeping? The child did not die but rather is asleep.” 40 And they laughed scornfully at him. But he threw them all out, taking the father of the child and the mother and those with him, and they went to where the child was. 41 And grasping the hand of the child he says to her, “Talitha koum,” which is interpreted, “Little girl, I say to you, arise.” 42 And then [ευθυς] the little girl stood up and walked about; for she was twelve years old. And they were overjoyed with great ecstasy. 43 And he ordered them many times that no one should know this, and he told [them] to give her something to eat.


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Mark 4


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Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, “The Birth of Tragedy, Out of the Spirit of Music”

If we look at the loftiest realms of that world streaming around us, our eyes strengthened and refreshed by the Greeks, we become aware of that greed of insatiably optimistic knowledge, exemplary in Socrates, turning into tragic resignation and a need for art, even if it’s true that this same greed, at its lower levels, must express itself as hostile to art and must inwardly loathe Dionysian tragic art in particular, as I have already explained in the example of the conflict between Aeschylean tragedy and Socratism.


Here we are now knocking, with turbulent feelings, on the doors of the present and future: Will that “turning around” lead to continuously new configurations of genius and straight to the music-playing Socrates? Will that net of art spread out over existence, whether in the name of religion or of science, be woven always more tightly and delicately, or is it determined that it will be ripped to shreds by the restless barbaric impulses and hurly-burly which we now call “the present”?—We are standing here on the sidelines for a little while as lookers on, worried but not without hope, for we are being permitted to witness that immense struggle and transition. Alas! The magic of these battles is that whoever looks at them must also fight them!

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel, which begins at Mark 1.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans begins at To the Romans.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

4 1 And again he began to teach on the seashore; and there gathered to him a great crowd, so that he was embarked in a boat sitting upon the water, and all the crowd was at the shore upon the land. 2 And he taught them with parables always and he was saying [or ‘used to say’] to them in his teaching,

    • “Listen!
    • Behold a sower went out to sow [seed]. 4 And it happened, while he was sowing, some [or ‘one’] fell beside the path and the birds flew down and ate it. 5 And another fell upon rocky ground where it did not have much earth, and then it sprang right up because it had no depth of earth; 6 and when the sun rose, it was scorched and because it did not have root, withered away. 7 And another fell into the thorny weeds, and the thorns grew up and together prevailed against it and it bore no fruit. 8 But some also fell onto good earth and bore fruit, growing and growing more and bearing thirty-fold, and sixty-fold, and one-hundred-fold.”
    • [cf. Isa 40:24: “Scarcely are they planted, scarcely have they taken root in the earth, before he blows upon them and they wither away.”]

9 And he would say, “Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear.”

10 And when they were alone, those about him with the twelve were asking [‘demanding’] him [to tell them the meaning of] the parables. 11 And he would say to them, “To you the mystery of the kingdom of god has been given; but to those outside, all things happen [γινεται] in parables, 12 in order that:

Seeing, they will see [βλεπω] but not see [ειδω, ‘recognize,’ ‘realize,’ ‘know’]
And hearing, they will hear but not perceive,
Lest they should ever turn themselves around
And I might forgive them.
[Isa 6:9-10]

13 And he says to them, “If you do not understand this parable, how will you ‘get’ [or ‘know’] any of the parables? 14 The sower sows the word. 15 Now these are the ones beside the path; when the word is sown and they hear it, then Satan comes and plucks away the word sown in them. 16 And these are the ones which were sown on rocky ground, when they hear the word, then with happiness they comprehend it, 17 but they do not have a root in themselves, but they persist for a time, until pressure or harassment comes on account of the word and they are scandalized [‘tripped up’]. 18 And still others are those planted among thorns; these ones hear the word, 19 but the anxieties of the ages [or ‘eternal cares’ – non-stop concerns of day-to-day life] and the deceit of wealth and all the rest concerning carnal desires, walk right in, ganging up together against the word, and they become fruitless. 20 And then there are those planted in good earth, who hear the word and take it upon themselves and bear fruit by thirty-fold, and sixty-fold, and one-hundred-fold.”

21 And he said to them, “The lamp does not come to be placed under the bushel basket or under the bed, does it? Is it not placed upon the lamp stand? 22 For it is not hidden but should be revealed, neither is it become secret but rather, it should come into the open. If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.”

24 And he would say to them, “Look at what you are hearing. By what measure you meet will [the same] be measured to you and more on top of that [lit. ‘and more placed upon you’]. 25 For what one has, [the same] will be given to him; and what one does not have, even [the same] which he has will be taken from him.”

26 And he was saying, “Thus is the kingdom of god, like a man casting seed upon the earth, 27 and he sleeps and rises night and day, and the seed sprouts and grows, how he does not know. 28 Automatically [αυτοματη] the earth bears fruit, first the stalk [‘grass’], then the ear, then full corn in the ear. 29 But when the crop is ready, only then [ευθυς] he sends the sickle, because the harvest time is imminent [‘has come about or around’].”

30 And he would say, “How shall we compare the kingdom of god, or by what parable shall we demonstrate it? 31 As a kernel of mustard, when it is planted upon the earth, smallest of all the seeds which are upon the earth, 32 and when it is sown, it grows up and becomes greatest of all the garden plants, and it produces great branches, so that the birds of the heavens can rest in its shade.”

33 And with many such parables he spoke the word to them, according to their ability to hear; 34 and without parables he did not speak to them, but privately to his own disciples he explained everything.

35 And he said to them that day, when evening came, “Let us go across [the lake].” 36 And leaving the crowd, they took him with them as he was, in the boat, and other boats were with him. 37 And there came a great stormy wind and the waves were casting into the boat, so that the boat was already [or ‘quickly’] being filled. 38 And he was in the stern upon the boat cushion sleeping. And they got him up and said to him, “Teacher, does it not matter to you that we are in danger?” 39 And rising up, he disciplined the wind and said to the sea, “Silence, be quiet.” And the wind was lulled and became extremely calm. 40 And he said to them, “What cowards you are! Do you not yet have faith?” 41 And they were afraid with a great fear, and said to each other, “Who is this that even the wind and sea obey him?”


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Mark 3


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel, which begins at Mark 1.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans begins at To the Romans.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

3 1 And he went again into the synagogue. And there was there a man having a withered hand. 2 And they were watching him closely [even ‘superstitiously’ – παρατηρεω] [to see] if on the Sabbath he would heal him, so that they could bring a charge against him. 3 So he says to the man having the withered hand, “Rise up into the middle.” 4 And he says to them, “Is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good or to do evil, to save life or to kill?” But they were silent. 5 And throwing them an angry look, being grieved at the hardness of their hearts, he says to the man, “Stretch out your hand.” And he stretched it out and his hand was healed. 6 And the Pharisees then went out with the Herodians, counseling together, binding against him how they might destroy him. [cf. 1K 13:6 – the prophet heals the withered hand of King Jeroboam.]

7 And Jesus, with his disciples withdrew to the sea, and a large crowd from Galilee [followed, sic], and also a large crowd from Judea 8 and from Jerusalem and from Idoumia and across the Jordan and around Turon and Sidon, learning what he was doing, went to him. 9 And he said to his disciples that a boat should be borne to him [προσκαρτερη, ‘to persevere’] lest the crowd obstruct him; for 10 many were healed so that they practically attacked him [‘fell upon him’] in order to touch him, as many as having maladies [μαστιγας, ‘a whipping’]. 11 And the unclean spirits, when they saw him fell down before him and cried out saying οτι, “You are the son of God.” 12 And he greatly censored them to the effect that they should not make him a spectacle.

13 And he ascended the mountain and called whom he willed, and they went up to him. 14 And he made twelve [who also would be sent, sic], in order that they should be with him and in order that he might send them to preach 15 and to have authority to cast out demons; 16 [and he made the twelve, sic], and he dubbed Simon, “Peter” 17 and Jacob the [son] of Zebedai and John the brother of Jacob he dubbed, “Boanerges,” which is ‘sons of thunder;’ 18 and Andrew and Philip and Bartholomew and Matthew and Thomas and Jacob the [son] of Alphai and Thaddieus and Simon the Kananite, 19 and Judas Iskariot, the one who betrayed him.

20 And he went home; and again the crowd gathered so that they could not even eat. 21 And hearing his circumstances [οι παρ’αυτου] they went out to lay hold of him; for they said οτι, “He is insane.” 22 And the scribes coming down from Jerusalem were saying οτι, “He has Baalzebub,” and οτι, “By the ruler of demons he casts out the demons.” 23 And calling them to himself, in a parable he said to them, “How is satan able to cast out satan? 24 But if a kingdom against itself should be divided, that kingdom is not able to stand; 25 and if a house against itself should be divided, that house is not able to stand. 26 And if satan should rise up against himself and be divided, he cannot stand but has an end. 27 Rather, no one at all is able, entering the house of the strong, to plunder his belongings, except first he should bind the strong one, and then he shall plunder his house. 28 Listen carefully οτι, “All the sins of the sons of men will be forgiven, even the blasphemy which they have blasphemed; 29 but whoever should blaspheme the holy spirit will not have forgiveness ever, but rather is liable of eternal sin.” 30 He said this because they were saying, “He has an unclean spirit.”

31 And his mother and his brothers came and standing outside, they sent to him, calling him. 32 And a crowd was sitting around him, and they said to him, “Look, your mother and your brothers [and your sisters, sic], are outside seeking after you. 33 And answering them, he said, “Who is [sic] my mother and my brothers?” 34 And casting a glance upon those sitting round him in a circle he says, “Look [at] my mother and brothers. 35 [For, sic] whoever would do the will of God, this one is my brother and sister and mother.”


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Mark 2


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel, which begins at Mark 1.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans begins at To the Romans.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

2 1 And he went again into Kapharnaoum because in the morning they heard he was in the house. 2 And many gathered so that [there was] no longer room to get through the door, and he was speaking the word. 3 And they came, bearing to him a paralytic of about four years running. 4 And not being able to get near him because of the crowd, they went up to the roof where he was, and digging through [the roof] they let down the stretcher where the paralytic was reclining. 5 And Jesus, beholding their faith, said to the paralytic, “Child, I forgive your sins.”

6 Now some of the scribes were there waiting about, and they dialogued in their hearts, 7 “What is this that he is saying? Blasphemy! …who is able to forgive sins except only god?” 8 And Jesus knew [emphasis of the acoustic device – ευθυς] in his spirit that they were dialoguing these things in themselves [so] he said to them, “Why do you dialogue in your hearts about this? 9 Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, ‘I forgive your sins,’ or to say, ‘Rise and take up your stretcher and walk’? 10 Now, in order that you should know that the son of man has power, on earth, to forgive sins,” he said to the paralytic, “to you I say, rise, take up your stretcher and go up into your house.” 12 And then he rose up, taking the stretcher and went out in front of all of them, so that they were all astonished and they glorified [‘gave credit to’] god, saying οτι, “We have never seen anything like this!”

13 And he went out again to the seashore; and all the crowd went to him, and he was teaching them. 14 And going along he saw Levi, the [son] of Alphai, sitting in the tax office and he says to him, “Follow me.” And arising, he followed him. 15 And when [γινεται, ‘it happened’ that], he was relaxing in his house, also many tax gatherers and sinners were there with Jesus and his disciples; for there were many [such who] also followed him. 16 And the Pharisaic scribes, seeing that he was eating with the sinners and tax gatherers said to his disciples, “Why does he eat with tax collectors and sinners?” 17 And hearing [them] Jesus says to them οτι, “The healthy [‘strong’] do not have need of healing but those having illness [do]; I did not come to call the righteous but rather, sinners.”

18 And the disciples of John and the Pharisees were fasting. And they came and said to him, “Why are the disciples of John and the disciples of the Pharisees fasting, but your disciples do not fast?” 19 And Jesus said to them, “The guests [υιοι, ‘sons’] of the bridegroom are not supposed [‘able’] to fast while the groom is with them, are they? During [the] time they have the groom with them they are not supposed to fast. 20 Now, a day will come when the bridegroom will be taken up from them, and then they will fast on that day.

21 No one sews a patch of new cloth upon an old garment; if, on the contrary [one does], it will pull away the fullness from it [it will shrink and ‘pull or lift away’ from it] [that is], the new from the old and make a worse tear. 22 And no one pours new wine into old wine skins [ασκους recalls the ασκωλια, the second day of the rural Dionysia, on which they danced upon wine skins; hence, ασκωλιαζω – ‘to dance, as at the Ascolia.’ Dionysus was the god of emotion (vs. Apollo, the god of reason, logic, ‘appearance’ or ‘illusion’ – ‘mind’). Dionysus was the representation of the subconscious, or what we consider to be the less controllable mental states; however, this may not have been the view of the Greeks or Romans, who celebrated these states. Compare Davidic revelry to the point of dancing naked among the people 2 Sam 6:14ff, in honor of the lord who chose him; David employs this heightened emotional state in worship. So Jesus is recalling celebration by this parable. His presence is cause for great celebration, feasting, revelry and joy] but if they do, the wine will rip the wine skins and the wine be lost, and the skins [too]; rather, new wine into young skins.”

23 And it befell him on the Sabbath to be going about through the grain fields and his disciples, making [their] way, were plucking the ears of corn. 24 And the Pharisees said to him, “Look, why are they doing to the Sabbath what is not lawful?” 25 And he says to them, “Have you never read what David did when he had need and he himself was hungry, and those with him? 26 How he went into the house of god while Abiathar [was] high priest and ate the bread of the presence, which was not lawful to eat except [for] the priests, and he gave also to those who were with him.” 27 And he was saying [or ‘used to say’] to them, “The Sabbath because of man was made and not man because of the Sabbath.”


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Mark 1

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This is my 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans begins at To the Romans.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

According to Mark

1 1Beginning of the gospel [‘good news,’ cf. Isa 40:9] of Jesus the Messiah [אa adds ‘son of god’]. 2 Exactly as it was written in Isaïa the prophet:

Behold I am sending my messenger before you,
who will prepare your way;
[Ex 23:20]
a voice crying in the wilderness,
make ready the way [‘road’] of the lord,
make straight his paths.
[Isa 40:3]

4 John came baptizing in the desert and preaching baptism of repentance unto forgiveness of sins. And all the land of Judea and all the Jerusalemites went out to him and were baptized by him in the Jordan river, fully confessing their sins. 6 And John was wearing camel hair and a belt of animal hide around his waist and eating locusts and wild honey. 7 And he preached, saying, “One more powerful [ισχυροτερος, ‘strong,’ ‘mighty’] than me is coming after me, one whom I am not worthy to stoop to loosen the strap of his sandal. 8 I baptize you with water; but he himself will baptize you with the holy spirit.”

9 And on that day, Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and he was baptized in the Jordan by John. 10 And when [ευθυς] he rose up from the water, he saw the heavens divided and the spirit as a dove descending onto him; 11 and a voice came from heaven, “You are my beloved son, with you I am very pleased.”

And then, consequently, [ευθυς] the spirit carried him into the desert. 13 And he was in the desert forty days being tried [‘tested’] by satan, and he was with the wild beasts, and the angels attended him.

14 After John was handed over [‘betrayed’], Jesus went into Galilee proclaiming the gospel [‘good news,’ some mss add ‘of the kingdom’] of god 15 and saying οτι [“used like our that in quoting another’s words: and especially in the N.T., often introduces the very words of speech, when it need not be rendered in English.” (Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1958)], “The appointed time has been fully met and the kingdom of god is near; reflect [or ‘repent,’ ‘change your mind’] and believe in the gospel.”

16 And going across the Sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew the brother of Simon, amphibious on the sea; for they were fishing. 17 And Jesus said to them, “Come after me and I will make you become fishers of men.” 18 And right away they left the nets and followed him. 19 And stepping forward a little he saw Jacob [son] of Zebedai and John, his brother, and they were in the boat repairing [or ‘rearranging’] the nets, 20 and then he called to them. And leaving their father, Zebadee, in the boat with the hired ones, they went after him.

21 Now he was going up into Kapharnaoum; and when [ευθυς] [it was] the Sabbath he went into the synagogue teaching. 22 And they were stricken with amazement at his teaching; for he was teaching them as one having authority and not as the scribes. 23 And then there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit and he shouted, 24 saying, “What to you and to me, Jesus Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are, the holy one of god.” 25 And Jesus sized him up, saying, “Shut up and come out of him.” 26 And the unclean spirit was torn out of him, and voicing a great cry, came out of him. 27 And all around they marveled, which led to seeking [‘investigating’] among themselves, saying, “Who is this? He teaches well, with authority, and the unclean spirits pay him homage and submit to him.” 28 And report of him went out then everywhere into the whole countryside of Galilee.

29 And then, going out of the synagogue he went into the house of Simon and Andrew with Jacob and John. 30 And the mother-in-law of Simon was burning up with fever, so they urgently [ευθυς] spoke to him concerning her. 31 And he came to [her] and raised her, grasping her hand; and the fever left her, and she served them. 32 And when evening came, at sunset, they carried to him everyone having maladies and those possessed by demons; 33 and the whole city was gathered at the door. 34 And he healed many having maladies, various ailments, and he cast out many demons but did not let them speak, the demons, because they knew him [some mss add, ‘to be the Messiah’].

35 And waking up very early, before dawn, he went out and went up into the desert place and there he prayed. 36 And Simon pursued him closely, and those with him, 37 and they found him and said to him οτι, “All are seeking you.” 38 And he said to them, “Let us go elsewhere, to the villages nearby, so that we might preach there; for they came out for this.” 39 And he went preaching into the synagogues in the whole of Galilee and casting out demons.

40 And a leper came to him, calling out to him and falling on his knees and saying to him, “If you wish, you are able to cleanse me [καθαρισαι, ‘catharsis’].” 41 And that one, having compassion, reached out his hand and said to him, “I will, be free;” 42 and then [ευθυς] the leprosy went out of him and he was free. 43 And he censured [‘strictly charged’] him when it came out of him 44 and said to him, “See to it that you say nothing to anyone, but go show yourself to the priests and make a pledge of surety concerning your cleansing as Moses instructed, as a testimony to them.” 45 Then going out, he went away to preach to many and to make known the word, as he was no longer able to appear in cities but was out in desert places; and they all came to him.


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.