Romans 7


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

7 1 Do you not know, brothers, for I am speaking as those who know the law, that the law rules over the man for the entire time he lives? 2 For the married woman is bound by law while the husband lives; but if the husband should die, she is released by the law from the husband. 3 Therefore then, while the husband lives, if she becomes married to another, she will be pronounced an adulteress; but if the husband should die, she is released by the law [so that] she might not be [‘it might not be to her’] an adulteress while being married to another.

4 Wherefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law because of the body of the Messiah, so that [εις] it might be otherwise, [that is, your] being raised from death, so that we should bear fruit to god. 6 For while we [were ruled] by the body [σαρκι, ‘material nature’], the pathology of sin [παθηματα των αμαρτων] which [is] because of the law being active [or, ‘which was activated’] in our physicality [μελεσιν, ‘limbs’; also ‘musical score or progression’ which reminds me of the concept of ‘tao’ – so possibly, our ‘ways’] produced fruit [which led] to death; 6 but now we are disengaged from the law, by which we were bound, having died [or ‘which kills’] so that we might serve the spirit in newness and not [serve] the scripture in ‘oldness’ [or ‘as of old’].

7 What then shall we say? The law [is] sin? Of course not! Rather, one would not know sin except for the law; for one would not know [what] lust [is] except the law said, “Do not lust.” 8 Sin got its start because of the commandment which produced in me all kinds of lusts; while [or ‘for’] without the law sin is dead. 9 Now, I lived without the law at one point [ποτε], but when the commandment came, sin sprang to life 10 and I died; so the commandment which [is] for life to me I found [to be] for death; 11 for sin, [which] received its inception by means of the commandment, seduced me and because of it I died.

12 Wherefore, then, [μεν, ‘on the other hand,’ or ‘to the contrary’] the law [is] holy and the commandment also holy and just and good. 13 [What then shall we say?] Therefore the good [i.e., the law] became death for me? Of course not! Rather sin, in order that it be revealed as sin, because the good [i.e., the law] in me was working death, [was incited] so that sin should become exceedingly sinful because of the commandment.

14 For we know that the law is spiritual but I am carnal, having been sold under sin [‘enslaved’]. 15 For what I am producing, I am not aware [of it]; for what I do not wish, this I do, rather, what I hate, this I do. 16 And if what I do not wish this I do, I agree with the law that [it is] fair [καλος, ‘moral virtue;’ or ‘I am in agreement with the law on the basis that it is fair’]. 17 But now I no longer propagate it [i.e., what I do not wish] but rather sin is resident in me [or, ‘sin (propagates it), being resident in me]. 18 For I know that good does not dwell in me, that is [τουτ’ εστιν] in my flesh, because while the will lies ready [within] me, the presentation [to do] the good [is] not. 19 For the good that I wish, I do not do, but rather, the evil [that] I do not wish, this I do.

20 Now, if what I do not wish this I do, [it is] no longer I that am producing it but the sin dwelling in me. 21 Therefore, I discover the law, [which is] the desire in me to do the good, [even though, οτι] [the will to do] evil lurks [παρακειται] in me. 22 For I sympathize [συνηδομαι] with the law of god against that which is in the man, 23 for I see another law in my [body] parts making war on the law of my mind [νοός] and taking me prisoner in to [εν τω] the law of sin which is in my [body] parts.

24 I am a man of suffering [‘misery,’ ‘toil’]; who will rescue me from this body of death? 25 Thanks to god for our lord Jesus Christ. Therefore then, I myself with [my] mind, on the one hand, serve the law of god while, on the other hand, with [my] body [I serve] the law of sin.


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

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Romans 6


@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

6 1 What then shall we say? Let us continue in sin so that mercy may abound? 2 Of course not! Since we died [or ‘were dead’] in sin, how yet shall we live in it? 3 Do you not know that those of us who were baptized in [the name of] Christ Jesus, were baptized in [the name of] his death? 4 Therefore we were buried with him through baptism [which is] for death [i.e. which itself means ‘death’], in order that wherefore Christ was raised from death because of the presence [δοξης] of the father, thus also in newness of life we are [now] living concretely [περιπατησωμεν, ‘going about’].

5 For if we became entangled in the similitude of his death [συμφυτοι, ‘conformed in likeness’], likewise also will we be [entangled in the similitude of his] resurrection; 6 this is evident [τουτο γινωσκοντες] in that our ‘old man’ was crucified, so that the sinful body would be destroyed, [that] no longer would we serve sin; 7 for one who dies has been acquitted of sin. 8 And if we died with Christ, we believe that also we will live with him, 9 knowing that Christ was raised from death, [that] he is now no longer dead, [that] death no longer rules him. 10 For the [death] he died, he died to sin once and for all; but the [life] he lives, he lives with God [forever]. 11 Thus also you should consider yourselves [to be, sic] dead to sin on the one hand, and living with God in Christ Jesus on the other.

12 Therefore, do not let sin rule by death in your body by [εις] obedience to its [αυτη, p46] lusts, 13 neither present your [body] parts as evil sinful weapons, but rather dedicate yourselves to God as being [raised] from death, alive (!) and present/dedicate your [body] parts as vessels [full] of righteousness to God. 14 For sin does not rule over you; for you are not under the law but under mercy [‘grace’].

15 What then [shall we say]? Let us sin because we are not under the law but under grace? Of course not! 16 Do you not know that to whom you dedicate yourselves as servants by obedience, οτι [‘that’] you are servants to whom you are obedient, whether in sin which leads [εις] to death or in obedience which leads to justification [‘acquittal’]? 17 And [it is because of] the kindness of God that [while] you were servants of sin [δε] you were obedient of heart, into which [i.e. your heart] you were given a form of teaching [a ‘model’ of teaching], 18 so [δε] you were released from sin [and] made servants of righteousness.

19 I am speaking in human terms [ανθρωπινου] because of the weakness of your humanness [σαρκος, ‘your material nature’]. For in as much as you dedicated your physicality [μελη, ‘parts’] as a servant of wickedness and of lawlessness leading to chaos [ανομια], thus now you must dedicate your physicality as servant of justice leading to orderliness [αγιασμον, ‘saintliness’]. 20 For [it is] because you were servants of sin [that] you were released by justification. 21 Because what fruit do you have formerly from the things which now make you ashamed, for the end of them [is] death? 22 But now [since] you have been released from sin and are servants to God, you have your fruit [which is] for holiness, the end [of which is] eternal life. 23 For the wages of sin [is] death, but the kindness of God [is] eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Romans 5


@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

5 1 Being justified, then, by faith we have peace in the presence of god [προς τον] because of our lord Jesus the Messiah 2 through whom also we have had the privilege of entrance [by faith, sic] into this unmerited favour [‘grace’] in which we have been placed and/even [in which] we may boast [laughingly, καυχωμεθα] on the basis of [the] hope of the glory of god. 3 And not only this, but also we may boast [scornfully καυχωμεθα] in the oppressions, knowing that oppression brings patience [endurance] into effect, 4 and the patience [effects] proof of character, and the approval [effects] hope. 5 And the hope does not shame [anyone], because οτι the love of God is pouring lavishly into our hearts because of the holy spirit which was given to us.

6 For while we were still weak Christ died, as appointed [ετι κατα καιρον], in behalf of the ungodly. 7 For someone would hardly die in behalf of a righteous [person]; and in behalf of the good [person] someone perhaps even might dare to die; 8 but god consolidated his love for us, οτι [‘in that’] even while we were still sinners Christ died in our behalf. 9 Therefore, much more now, being acquitted by his blood will we be saved because of him from the wrath [of god].

10 For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to god because of the death of his son, much more being reconciled will we be saved by his life; 11 and not only that, but also, we will boast [with laughter] in god because of our lord Jesus the Messiah, because of whom we have now received [‘comprehended’] reconciliation.

12 Wherefore, since through [or ‘because of’] one man sin entered into the universe, and because of sin, death, thus also death passed through into all men, with the result that all are sinful; 13 for until the law of sin was in the universe, sin was not imputed while there was no law [or ‘there being no law’], 14 however, death ruled from Adam until Moses even upon those not sinning in the same manner of transgression as Adam, who is a model of what is intended [i.e., Adam is ομοιωματι, ‘simile,’ all sin is ‘similar’ even when the content is not exactly the same; so Adam’s sin can, therefore, stand for ‘all sin’].

15 However, not as the transgression [is] thus also the free gift [‘serendipity,’ ‘grace’]; for if by the one transgression all died, how much more [will] the kindness of god and the gift, by [this] kindness, of the one man, Jesus Christ, be more than enough for the many. 16 But the gift [is] not because [ως δια, ‘as if’] of the one who sinned; for judgement of [the] one led to condemnation [of all], but the free gift is for many transgressions [leading] to justification. 17 For if by the one transgression death ruled because of the one, much more will those who receive justice for [eternal] life [by] the overwhelming kindness and serendipity [δωρεας] [of god], rule,  because of the one, Jesus the Messiah.

18 Therefore then, since because of one transgression [it is such that there is] judgement for all men, thus also because of one [there is] justification for all men to the end that they are made righteous for [eternal] life; 19 wherefore, because of the disobedience of the one man many sins were established, thus also because of the obedience of the one, many justifications have been established.

20 Now, the law usurped, in order that transgression should perform a coup [πλεοναζω, ‘to claim too much, go to far’]; but where sin [greedily] overstepped, mercy well exceeded [it], 21 so that wherefore sin ruled by death, thus also mercy would rule because of justice [which leads] to eternal life because of Jesus Christ our lord.


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Romans 4

@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

4 1 What then shall we say was gained by Abraam our forefather by family? 2 For if Abraam was justified by means of actions he has a cause for boasting, but not before [‘in the presence of’] god. 3 For what does scripture say? “Abraam believed god and it was considered as justification for him.” [Gn 15:6] 4 Now, to the one who sets to work [for a wage] the payment is not considered against grace [favour unmerited] but against debt 5 but to the one who does not set to work putting faith in profane righteousness, his faith is counted as justification; 6 and moreover, David says, “blessed [is] the man whom god considers righteous without [‘apart from’] works,”

Blessed is the one whose lawlessness is forgiven
and [blessed] the one whose sins have been covered;
8 blessed the man whom the lord does not consider a sinner. 
[Ps 32:1-2]

9 Therefore, [is] this blessing upon the circumcised or also upon the uncircumcised? For we say, “faith was considered for Abraam as justification.” [Gn 15:6] 10 What then shall we say? Is it for the circumcision or for the uncircumcision? Not for the circumcision but for the uncircumcision; 11 and [so] he received the sign [σημειον] of circumcision as a signet [‘seal’] of justification by faith while in uncircumcision [‘while being uncircumcised’], to the end that he himself should be the father of all who believe while circumcised, so that it [their faith] would be considered as justification for them, 12 and [he should be] father of the circumcision, not only to those of the circumcision, but also to those who walk in the footsteps [‘who take the same course’] while in uncircumcision, of the faith of our father Abraam.

13 For not because of the law [was] the promise to Abraam or to his seed, which is his inheritance of the universe, but rather, [the promise was given] because of justification by faith. 14 For if [they were] heirs by law, [then] faith has been cancelled and the promise abolished; 15 for the law brings wrath into effect; but where there is no law, neither [is there] transgression. 16 On account of this, [justification is] by faith, in order that [it should be counted] against unmerited favour [‘grace’], to the end that the promise be confirmed for all the offspring, not to those of the law only but rather also to those of the faith of Abraam, who is father of us all, 17 it is therefore written οτι “Father of many nations I have made you,” [Gn 17:5] over against [or ‘in view of’] what he believed of god who makes alive those things which are dead and who calls forth things which are not, as things that are.

18 [Abraam] who, with hope against [all] hope, believed that it might be unto him “father of many nations” according to what [god] said, “Thus will be your offspring,” [Gn 15:5] and not being weak in faith against the fact that [κατενοησεν] his own body had already ‘died,’ when he was over a hundred years old, and [against] the dead womb of Sarah; 20 so that at the promise of god he did not depart in faithlessness but rather, was empowered by faith, giving [the] credit [‘glory’] to god 21 and [furthermore], he was fully persuaded [‘convinced’] that what [god] promised he was also able to do.

22 Wherefore also, “it was considered as justification for him.” [Gn 15:6] 23 Now, it was not written because of him only that it was considered to him [as such] but also because of us, whom he is about to consider [or ‘whom he is sure to consider’], [that is] those who believe in the one who raised Jesus our lord from death, 25 who was betrayed [‘given over’] because of our transgression and raised because of [or ‘for’] our justification.


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Romans 3


@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

3 1 What then is the advantage of the Judean, or what the profit of the circumcision? Much in every way! First, that they were entrusted with the words of god. 3 So what? If some of them were unfaithful will their faithlessness cancel the faith of god? 4 Of course not! [μη γενοιτο, ‘may it never be’] Let god alone be truthful and every man a liar, as it is written,

You should be justified by your words
and made victorious when you are condemned
[Ps 51:4]

5 Now if our injustice strengthens god’s justness, what shall we say? God is not unjust when he imposes wrath [επιφερων την οργην, or poss. ‘takes vengeance’] is he? I speak as if to men. 6 Of course not! How then will god judge the world? 7 But if, on the other hand, the truth of god by my lie should abound for his glory, will I still be condemned as a sinner? 8 And it is not that, as we are being defamed and some are of the opinion [that] we are saying, “Let us do evil so that good may come,” is it?  Judgement of those who [are saying this kind of thing] is appropriate. 9 What then [shall we say]? Are we better [than they]? Not at all! for we have proven before that whether Judean or Greek, all are under [the curse] of sin, 10 as it is written οτι

There is not even one just person
11 not one who understands
not one who seeks after god.
12 All have turned away
they are altogether useless,
there is not one who performs
acts of kindness [‘mercy’],
not even one.
13 Their throats are an open tomb
they are treacherous with their tongues,
snake poison [‘venom’] is under their lips;
14 whose mouth is full of harassing curses
and sharp bitterness,
15 their feet are hasty to shed blood,
16 offensiveness and misery are in their ways,
17 and they do not know peace.
18 There is no fear of god in their eyes.

[Ps 14:1-3; Ps 53:1-3; Ec 7:20; Ps 5:9; Ps 140:3; Ps 10:7; Ps 36:1; Isa 59:7-8]

19 Now, we know that whatever the law says, it says to those who are bound by the law, in order that every mouth should be closed and all the universe be brought to trial by god; 20 therefore, they are not justified by works of the law, [that is] all flesh, before him, for because of the law sin is made known.

21 But now, apart from the law the justice of god has been openly demonstrated as testified by the law and by the prophets, 22 so the justice of god [is] through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no difference, 23 for all have sinned and come short of god’s glory 24 [and] justification is given [to us] by his kindness because of the redemptive price [paid] by Christ Jesus; 25 whom god tendered as a propitiation by faith [or ‘which works through faith’], [a propitiation made] in his blood as proof of his being justified on account of [the legal] remission of preexisting sins, 26 by the forbearance of god, serving as [προς την] proof of his justness, [and] by the foreordained time being now, so that he should be just and acquit by faith in Jesus.

27 Where then [is] the cause for boasting? Let it be humbled. [Is the cause of boasting] because of doing the law? Is it from works? Not any more, rather, it is because of the law of faith. 28 For we contend [that] by faith a man is justified apart from works of the law. 29 Is god that of the Judeans only? Is he not also god of the nations? Of course he is god of the nations, 30 in fact, [he is] one god who justifies the circumcision by [εκ] faith and the uncircumcision because of [δια] faith. 31 Therefore, will we lay aside the law because of faith? Of course not! Rather, we establish the law.


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Romans 2


@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

2 1 Therefore, you are without excuse [αν + απολογητος, ‘apology’], oh man who condemns everyone; for by the standard with which you judge another, you condemn yourselves, for you who are judging do the same things. 2 For we know that God’s judgement is truly against those who do these things. 3 But consider this, oh man who judges the things [others] are doing yet does them, οτι will you escape God’s judgement? 4 Will you scorn the wealth of his kindness and forbearance and long-suffering, not knowing that the mercy of God draws you to repentance? 5 And according to your sclerotic [‘hard,’] and unrepentant heart, you are storing up wrath for yourselves on the day of wrath and of the revelation of the righteous judgement of God 6 who will repay each according to his actions; 7 on the one hand, to those who seek, by the good work of patient endurance, glory and honour and immortality in life eternal, 8 but on the other hand, to those who are persuaded to comply with ambitious endeavour [εριθεια, ’politicizing’] and disobedience to the truth in injustice, violent anger, and evil passionate desire, 9 [they will receive] oppression and ‘dire straights’ [στενοχωρια, ‘difficulty,’ ‘narrow space’] upon every soul [ψυχην, ‘psyche’] of a man who orchestrates evil, whether the Judean first and the Greek; 10 but on the other hand, glory and honour and peace upon all who do good works, both the Judean and the Greek; 11 for there is no favouritism [‘respect of persons, one above another’] with God.

12 For those who are lawless sinners will also be destroyed lawlessly, and those who are sinners under the law, they will be judged by law; 13 for those unaware of the law of justice from God but nevertheless doing lawful [things] will be acquitted. 14 For when a nation [or ‘gentile’] which does not have the law, by nature does lawful things, they themselves not having law are law to themselves; 15 such [people] demonstrate the work of the law written on their hearts, their conscience testifying among them and between one another, [their] considerate reflexion either accusing or defending [each other], 16 for the day when God will judge the things hidden by men, according to my gospel, through [δια] Jesus Christ.

17 Now if you call yourself a Judean and rest upon the law and boast in God 18 and you know the will [of the law] and approve of the [legal] differentiations being instructed by the law, 19 being persuaded that you yourselves are guides of the blind, light in the darkness, 20 instructors [or ‘correctors’] of fools, teachers of children, having the appearance of knowledge and [the appearance] of legal ‘truth’; 21 will the one who teaches others, therefore, not teach yourself? 22 Will the one who says, ‘do not commit adultery’ be an adulterer? Will the one who loathes idols be an idolator?

23 Who, boasting in the law, you dishonour God by breaking the law; 24 for “because of you the name of God is blasphemed [profaned, defamed] among the nations,” [Is 52:5; Ez 36:20], as it is written. 25 For on the one hand, circumcision is to your advantage if you practise law; but if you should be a law breaker, your circumcision becomes uncircumcision. 26 Therefore if the uncircumcised should observe the justice of the law, will not his uncircumcision be considered [‘counted’] as circumcision? 27 And he, who by nature uncircumcised keeps the law, will judge you, who by scripture and by circumcision break the law.

28 For the ‘Judean’ is not in the outward show, neither [is] the circumcision in the outward show in the flesh, 29 rather, the Judean [is] in the hidden [things] and circumcision [is] of the heart by spirit not scripture, of whom praise [comes] not from men but from God.


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

To The Romans


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to the Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

To The Romans

1 1 Paul, servant of Christ Jesus, chosen apostle, marked out for the gospel [‘good news’] of god, 2 which was promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy scriptures 3 concerning his son, who was begotten of the seed of David by family [κατα σαρκα], 4 defined as the son of god by power, resurrected from death by the holy spirit, Jesus Christ our lord, 5 on account of whom we received mercy and apostleship in obedience of faith, among all the nations in behalf of his name, 6 in which also you are called by Jesus Christ,

7 to all those in Rome, beloved of god, chosen saints, grace to you and peace from god our father and [our] lord Jesus Christ. 8 First, I thank my god through Jesus Christ concerning all of you, that your faith is being proclaimed in the whole world. 9 For god is my witness, by whom I am bound in my spirit to the gospel of his son, as unceasingly I make remembrance of you 10 always in my prayers, requesting if somehow, at some point [ηδη ποτε, ‘yet then’] I might be given free passage [or ‘fair voyage’] by the will of god to come to you. 11 For I long to see you, so that I might share with you some gifts of the spirit so that you might be firmly rooted, 12 and this is so that I might be comforted together with you through the faith among us, between you and me.

13 I do not wish you to be ignorant, brothers, οτι for while I often proposed to come to you so that I might have some [spiritual] fruit also with you, just as [there is/I have] also among the rest of the nations, but I was prevented up to now. 14 And so, to the Greeks and to the Barbarians, to the wise and to fools I am a debtor, and 15 so far as I am concerned, I am willing to proclaim the gospel also to you [who are] in Rome.

16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of god to save all who believe, the Judean first and [then] the Greek. 17 For in it [the gospel] the justice of god is revealed by faith [εκ] for faith [εις], as it is written, “And the righteous shall live by [εκ] faith.” [Hab 2:4] 18 For the wrath of god is being revealed from heaven against all profanity and injustice of men who are blinded [κατεχω] to the truth by injustice, 19 since the knowledge of god is manifest among them; for god has openly shown [it] to them. 20 For his unseen qualities have been observable by reason [νοούμενα, ‘pure intelligence’] from the things made in the creation of the universe, which qualities [τε] [are] his amazing [awful] power and divinity, to the end that they are without excuse, 21 since knowing god, not as to god did they honour or give thanks, but rather they were foolish in their reasoning and their clueless [ασυνετος] hearts were darkened.

22 Pretending [φασκοντες] to be wise they were made fools 23 and they exchanged the indestructible glory of god for iconic images of destructible men and birds and four-footed beasts and snakes. [cf. Jer 2:11] 24 Therefore god gave them over to impurity by the lusts of their hearts whereby they dishonoured their bodies among themselves; 25 they exchanged the truth of god for a lie and they dreaded and were enslaved by the ‘creature’ before [‘in the presence of’] the creator, who is blessed forever, amen.

26 Because of this god gave them over to suffer dishonour, and these [dishonours, dishonourable practices] by free will exchanged their natural ‘use’ for that which [is] against nature, 27 and likewise the men, forsaking the ‘natural use’ by free will were poured forth in vain, lavish squander in their desire for one another, men with men, performing inappropriate [acts] and receiving in themselves [or ‘among themselves’] what is due recompense for their error [πλανης]. [It seems pretty obvious, in view of vss 22-25, that Paul is speaking here about idolatrous cultic practices in the many different religions that were being practiced in Rome at the time, and not about social mores in general. Further, I believe Paul is most concerned here about truth, not sex, and his argument goes to the point that worshipping God with sex, which is the cultus of fertility underlying these practices, is not true worship of the true God, who is not pleased by idolatry or any of the “offerings” that go along with it. Paul  is teaching that Christianity is not a fertility cult,  and beyond that, he seems to indicate his opinion that some of the fertility cults are absolutely ludicrous because they aren’t even really about fertility.]

28 And just as they did not approve of having god in full knowledge, god gave them over to a depraved mind, to do things which are not appropriate, 29 being filled with all injustice, perversion, greedy covetousness, cowardly wickedness, full of grudging envy, bloody murderousness, rivalry, cunning deceitful treachery, maliciousness, whispering slander, 30 evil gossip, hating god, hubris [outrageous violence], extravagant arrogance, false pretentiousness, evil lies [‘inventions’], parenting disobedience, 31 stupid, faithless [or ‘untrustworthy’], heartlessly unaffectionate, merciless; 32 such ones, knowing the justice of god, that the things they are doing are worthy of death, not only doing them but also consenting with pleasure in the doing.


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.