Romans 9


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

9 1 I speak the truth in Christ, I am not lying, my conscience bearing witness [‘testifying’] together with me by the holy spirit, 2 because there is great grief and unceasing pain [distress] in my heart. 3 For I would pray to be accursed, I myself, from Christ in behalf of my brothers who are my ‘fellow get’ according to the flesh, 4 who are Israelites, whose [is] the adoption and the glory and the promises [‘covenants’] and the legislation [νομοθεοια] and the service [‘worship’] rites, and the pronouncements, 5 of whom [are] the fathers and from whom [is] the Christ according to the flesh [‘by family’], the one who is above all, god, blessed forever, amen.

6 Not in this alone [is it] that the word of god has brought result. For not all those of Israel are Israel; 7 neither is the seed of Abraam all children, but rather, “By Isaac will your seed be called.” [Gen 21:12] 8 That is, not the children of the flesh [are] these children of god but rather, the children considered as ‘seed’ are of the promise [‘pronouncement’]. 9 For this [is] the word of the promise, “According to this time [‘at the appointed time’] I will come and there will be to Sara a son.” [Gen 18:10, 14] 10 And not only this, but also Rebecca, of one [time] having conceived [by] Isaac our father. 11 For while not yet being born, neither purposing anything good or evil, in order that the design of god for election should remain as not [an election] of ‘workers’ but [an election] of the chooser, who told her οτι, “The older [‘greater’] will serve the younger [‘lesser’], [Gen 25:23] 13 as it is written,

Jacob I loved
but Esau I hated.
[Mal 1:2-3]

14 What then shall we say? [There is] not injustice with god, is there? Of course not! 15 For Moses says,

I will show mercy to whomever I would show mercy
and I will pity whomever I would pity.
[Ex 33:19]

16 Therefore, then, [election is] not of the will, neither of the running [as in a race] but rather, of the mercy of god. 17 For the scripture says to Pharao οτι “For this very [reason] I raised you up [that] thus I might display to you my power [‘ability’] and thus my name will be declared in all the earth.” [Ex 9:16] 18 Therefore then, on whom he wishes he has mercy, and whom he wishes he hardens.

19 You will say to me then, “Why [then, sic] will he yet find fault? For who can stand against his will?” Oh man, [think] rather, who are you answering back to god? The figure does not say to the artist, “Why are you making me this way?” does it? 21 Or does not the potter have authority over the clay, to make of his mix on the one hand a vessel for honour but, on the other hand, [a vessel] for dishonour? 22 But if god, wishing to display [his] wrath and make known his power, bears with much longsuffering a vessel of wrath completely for destruction, 23 but [wishing] to make known the riches of his glory upon a vessel of mercy which was prepared for his own use for glory, 24 to which purpose [ους as ινα] also he chose us, not only from [the] Judeans but also of the nations, 25 as also in Hosea he says,

I will call the ‘not my people’ my people and ‘she who is not [my] beloved’ my beloved; 26 and it will be in the place where it was announced, “You are not my people,” there they will be called sons of a living god. [Ho 2:23]

27 And Isaias shouted in behalf of Israel, “Even if the number of the sons of Israel was as the sand of the sea, the smallest [υπο-λειγμα] remnant will be saved; 28 for [the] lord will effect a completed [‘negotiated,’ συντελων] and abbreviated accounting [λογον] upon the earth.” [Is 10:22-23]

29 And exactly as Isaias foretold:

Except [the] lord of armies [Σαβαωθ- Heb. pl. n. (transliteration) ‘armies’] left us a seed, like Sodom would we have become and we would have been made like Gomorrah. [Is 1:9]

30 What then shall we say? [Let us say] that a nation such as does not pursue justice ‘detected’ [‘discovered,’ καταλαμβανω] justice, and the justice [was] from [εκ] faith, 31 but Israel, who pursued a law of justice did not attain [‘receive precedence’] in law. 32 But why? Because [it was] not [a law] of faith but one which is based on [ως εξ] actions; they stumbled over the stone of offence, 33 exactly as it is written:

Behold, I place in Zion a stone of offence [’cause of sin’] and a rock of scandal, and the one who believes in him [or ‘it’] will not be shamed. [Is 28:16]


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

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Romans 8


@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

8 1 There is therefore, now, no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. 2 For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus has released you from the law of sin and of death. 3 For [because of] the inability of the law, in which was weakness because of the flesh, God sent his own son in the similitude of sinful flesh and concerning sin, [and] he condemned sin in the flesh, 4 in order that the justice of the law be fulfilled among us who are not living [concretely – περιπατουσιν, ‘going about’] according to [the law of] the flesh but rather according to [the law of] the spirit. 5 For those who are [living] according to [the law] of the flesh mind the things of the flesh, while [δε] those [living] according to the [law of] the spirit [mind] the things of the spirit.

6 For the essence [φρονημα, ‘mind,’ ‘purpose,’ ‘pretense’] of the flesh [is] death, but the essence of the spirit [is] life and peace; 7 wherefore the essence [or ‘purpose’] of the flesh [is] enmity with god, for it is not subject to the law of god, and neither is it able [to be subject]; 8 rather, those who are carnal [εν σαρκι] cannot make amends [‘propitiate’] to god. 9 Now, you are not carnal but rather, spiritual [εν πνευματι], if, that is, the spirit of god inhabits [‘makes a home in,’ οικει] you. And if someone does not have the spirit of Christ, this one is not his.

10 But if Christ [dwells] in you, then, on the one hand, the body [is] death because of sin but on the other hand, the spirit [is] alive because of justification. 11 Now, if the spirit which raised Jesus from death [νεκρων] inhabits you, the one who raised Christ from death will also make alive your bodies of death [θνητα] because of his spirit inhabiting you.

12 Therefore, then, brothers, we are debtors not of the flesh which lives according to the flesh, 13 for if you live according to the flesh you will surely die; but if [by the] spirit you put to death the practices [πραξεις, also ‘purposes’] of the body, you will live.

[It seems Paul is saying that the flesh has a ‘consciousness’ which has intention, as opposed to the mind, νους, and spirit, πνευματος, which also have conscious intentionality; conversely, it could also be argued that Paul believes the ‘flesh’ is not conscious, and therefore cannot submit to the law, but how then, is it fair for god to judge the flesh if it has no intention? I would favour the former over the latter.]

14 For whom the spirit of god leads [connotation, ‘to lead off for oneself’], these are the sons of god. 15 For you did not receive a spirit of servitude again, [leading] to fear, but rather you received a spirit of adoption by whom we cry, “Abba, father” [or, “Abba,” to the father]. 16 This very spirit testifies with our spirit that we are children of god. 17 And if [we are] children, [we are] also heirs; heirs, on the one hand, of god, and heirs together with Christ, if indeed we suffer together so that also we might be glorified together [with him].

18 For I consider that the sufferings of the present [are] not worthy to be compared with the glory which is surely to be revealed to us. 19 For the earnest expectation of the [whole] creation waits expectantly for the unveiling [‘appearance,’ ‘revelation’] of the sons of god. 20 For in ignorance [‘vanity,’ ‘foolishness,’ ‘meaninglessness’] was the [entire] creation submerged [‘subjected’], not voluntarily but rather, because of the [will of the] one who subjected [them], in hope 21 that the entire creation itself would be released from the slavery of depravity [‘wickedness’] to the freedom of the glory [possessed by] the children of god.

22 For we know that all creation guts it out together [‘groans,’ ‘sighs’] and perseveres [‘travails,’ ‘suffers agony’] together with [us] [from the] beginning until now; 23 and not only this, but also those having the first part of the spirit, we also in our very selves ‘gut it out,’ waiting expectantly for adoption, [which is] the releasing [‘redemption’] of our body. 24 For we were saved by hope; but hope seen is not hope; for does one hope for what one sees? 25 Rather, if what we do not see we hope for, with patience [‘endurance,’ or ‘patient endurance’] we wait expectantly.

26 And likewise also the spirit works closely [with us] to help our weakness; for [example], what thing [τι] we should pray for, according to what [is] necessary, we do not know, but the spirit itself intercedes with unspeakable quiet inner lamentations; 27 and the passionate desires of the heart know what [is] the essence [or purpose] of the spirit, that it intercedes according to [the will of] god in behalf of the holy ones [‘saints’]. 28 And we know that for those who love god all things work together for good, for those who are called according to [his] purpose [προθεσιν].

29 Because whom he foreknew, he also marked out beforehand [to be] copies of the image of his son [συμμορφους, ‘shaped like’], to the end that he might be the firstborn of many brothers; 30 and whom he marked out beforehand, thus also he called [‘chose’]; and whom he chose, this also he justified; and whom he justified, this also he will glorify.

31 What then shall we say concerning these things? If god [is] on our side, who [can be] against us? 32 He who did not spare even his own son but rather in behalf of us all gave him over, how not also with him will all of us be granted favour? 33 Who will be the accuser against the chosen of god? God, the one who justifies; 34 who [will be] the one who condemns? Christ Jesus, the one who died, and moreover, who was raised, and who is in glory with god [or ‘in the glory of god’], and who intercedes in our behalf.

35 Who will separate us from the love of Christ? Oppression or difficulty [‘dire straights’] or harassing persecution, or hunger or nakedness or danger or sword? For thus it is written:

For your sake we die the whole day [long],
we are considered as sheep for slaughter.
[Ps 44:22]

37 Rather, in all things we are hyper-victors [‘beyond victors’] because of the one who loves us. 38 For I am convinced that neither death nor life, angels nor rulers, present circumstances nor future circumstances nor [any] possible circumstances, 39 neither height nor depth nor any other created thing is able to separate us from the love of god in Christ Jesus our lord.


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Romans 7


@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

7 1 Do you not know, brothers, for I am speaking as those who know the law, that the law rules over the man for the entire time he lives? 2 For the married woman is bound by law while the husband lives; but if the husband should die, she is released by the law from the husband. 3 Therefore then, while the husband lives, if she becomes married to another, she will be pronounced an adulteress; but if the husband should die, she is released by the law [so that] she might not be [‘it might not be to her’] an adulteress while being married to another.

4 Wherefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law because of the body of the Messiah, so that [εις] it might be otherwise, [that is, your] being raised from death, so that we should bear fruit to god. 6 For while we [were ruled] by the body [σαρκι, ‘material nature’], the pathology of sin [παθηματα των αμαρτων] which [is] because of the law being active [or, ‘which was activated’] in our physicality [μελεσιν, ‘limbs’; also ‘musical score or progression’ which reminds me of the concept of ‘tao’ – so possibly, our ‘ways’] produced fruit [which led] to death; 6 but now we are disengaged from the law, by which we were bound, having died [or ‘which kills’] so that we might serve the spirit in newness and not [serve] the scripture in ‘oldness’ [or ‘as of old’].

7 What then shall we say? The law [is] sin? Of course not! Rather, one would not know sin except for the law; for one would not know [what] lust [is] except the law said, “Do not lust.” 8 Sin got its start because of the commandment which produced in me all kinds of lusts; while [or ‘for’] without the law sin is dead. 9 Now, I lived without the law at one point [ποτε], but when the commandment came, sin sprang to life 10 and I died; so the commandment which [is] for life to me I found [to be] for death; 11 for sin, [which] received its inception by means of the commandment, seduced me and because of it I died.

12 Wherefore, then, [μεν, ‘on the other hand,’ or ‘to the contrary’] the law [is] holy and the commandment also holy and just and good. 13 [What then shall we say?] Therefore the good [i.e., the law] became death for me? Of course not! Rather sin, in order that it be revealed as sin, because the good [i.e., the law] in me was working death, [was incited] so that sin should become exceedingly sinful because of the commandment.

14 For we know that the law is spiritual but I am carnal, having been sold under sin [‘enslaved’]. 15 For what I am producing, I am not aware [of it]; for what I do not wish, this I do, rather, what I hate, this I do. 16 And if what I do not wish this I do, I agree with the law that [it is] fair [καλος, ‘moral virtue;’ or ‘I am in agreement with the law on the basis that it is fair’]. 17 But now I no longer propagate it [i.e., what I do not wish] but rather sin is resident in me [or, ‘sin (propagates it), being resident in me]. 18 For I know that good does not dwell in me, that is [τουτ’ εστιν] in my flesh, because while the will lies ready [within] me, the presentation [to do] the good [is] not. 19 For the good that I wish, I do not do, but rather, the evil [that] I do not wish, this I do.

20 Now, if what I do not wish this I do, [it is] no longer I that am producing it but the sin dwelling in me. 21 Therefore, I discover the law, [which is] the desire in me to do the good, [even though, οτι] [the will to do] evil lurks [παρακειται] in me. 22 For I sympathize [συνηδομαι] with the law of god against that which is in the man, 23 for I see another law in my [body] parts making war on the law of my mind [νοός] and taking me prisoner in to [εν τω] the law of sin which is in my [body] parts.

24 I am a man of suffering [‘misery,’ ‘toil’]; who will rescue me from this body of death? 25 Thanks to god for our lord Jesus Christ. Therefore then, I myself with [my] mind, on the one hand, serve the law of god while, on the other hand, with [my] body [I serve] the law of sin.


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Romans 6


@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

6 1 What then shall we say? Let us continue in sin so that mercy may abound? 2 Of course not! Since we died [or ‘were dead’] in sin, how yet shall we live in it? 3 Do you not know that those of us who were baptized in [the name of] Christ Jesus, were baptized in [the name of] his death? 4 Therefore we were buried with him through baptism [which is] for death [i.e. which itself means ‘death’], in order that wherefore Christ was raised from death because of the presence [δοξης] of the father, thus also in newness of life we are [now] living concretely [περιπατησωμεν, ‘going about’].

5 For if we became entangled in the similitude of his death [συμφυτοι, ‘conformed in likeness’], likewise also will we be [entangled in the similitude of his] resurrection; 6 this is evident [τουτο γινωσκοντες] in that our ‘old man’ was crucified, so that the sinful body would be destroyed, [that] no longer would we serve sin; 7 for one who dies has been acquitted of sin. 8 And if we died with Christ, we believe that also we will live with him, 9 knowing that Christ was raised from death, [that] he is now no longer dead, [that] death no longer rules him. 10 For the [death] he died, he died to sin once and for all; but the [life] he lives, he lives with God [forever]. 11 Thus also you should consider yourselves [to be, sic] dead to sin on the one hand, and living with God in Christ Jesus on the other.

12 Therefore, do not let sin rule by death in your body by [εις] obedience to its [αυτη, p46] lusts, 13 neither present your [body] parts as evil sinful weapons, but rather dedicate yourselves to God as being [raised] from death, alive (!) and present/dedicate your [body] parts as vessels [full] of righteousness to God. 14 For sin does not rule over you; for you are not under the law but under mercy [‘grace’].

15 What then [shall we say]? Let us sin because we are not under the law but under grace? Of course not! 16 Do you not know that to whom you dedicate yourselves as servants by obedience, οτι [‘that’] you are servants to whom you are obedient, whether in sin which leads [εις] to death or in obedience which leads to justification [‘acquittal’]? 17 And [it is because of] the kindness of God that [while] you were servants of sin [δε] you were obedient of heart, into which [i.e. your heart] you were given a form of teaching [a ‘model’ of teaching], 18 so [δε] you were released from sin [and] made servants of righteousness.

19 I am speaking in human terms [ανθρωπινου] because of the weakness of your humanness [σαρκος, ‘your material nature’]. For in as much as you dedicated your physicality [μελη, ‘parts’] as a servant of wickedness and of lawlessness leading to chaos [ανομια], thus now you must dedicate your physicality as servant of justice leading to orderliness [αγιασμον, ‘saintliness’]. 20 For [it is] because you were servants of sin [that] you were released by justification. 21 Because what fruit do you have formerly from the things which now make you ashamed, for the end of them [is] death? 22 But now [since] you have been released from sin and are servants to God, you have your fruit [which is] for holiness, the end [of which is] eternal life. 23 For the wages of sin [is] death, but the kindness of God [is] eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Romans 5


@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

5 1 Being justified, then, by faith we have peace in the presence of god [προς τον] because of our lord Jesus the Messiah 2 through whom also we have had the privilege of entrance [by faith, sic] into this unmerited favour [‘grace’] in which we have been placed and/even [in which] we may boast [laughingly, καυχωμεθα] on the basis of [the] hope of the glory of god. 3 And not only this, but also we may boast [scornfully καυχωμεθα] in the oppressions, knowing that oppression brings patience [endurance] into effect, 4 and the patience [effects] proof of character, and the approval [effects] hope. 5 And the hope does not shame [anyone], because οτι the love of God is pouring lavishly into our hearts because of the holy spirit which was given to us.

6 For while we were still weak Christ died, as appointed [ετι κατα καιρον], in behalf of the ungodly. 7 For someone would hardly die in behalf of a righteous [person]; and in behalf of the good [person] someone perhaps even might dare to die; 8 but god consolidated his love for us, οτι [‘in that’] even while we were still sinners Christ died in our behalf. 9 Therefore, much more now, being acquitted by his blood will we be saved because of him from the wrath [of god].

10 For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to god because of the death of his son, much more being reconciled will we be saved by his life; 11 and not only that, but also, we will boast [with laughter] in god because of our lord Jesus the Messiah, because of whom we have now received [‘comprehended’] reconciliation.

12 Wherefore, since through [or ‘because of’] one man sin entered into the universe, and because of sin, death, thus also death passed through into all men, with the result that all are sinful; 13 for until the law of sin was in the universe, sin was not imputed while there was no law [or ‘there being no law’], 14 however, death ruled from Adam until Moses even upon those not sinning in the same manner of transgression as Adam, who is a model of what is intended [i.e., Adam is ομοιωματι, ‘simile,’ all sin is ‘similar’ even when the content is not exactly the same; so Adam’s sin can, therefore, stand for ‘all sin’].

15 However, not as the transgression [is] thus also the free gift [‘serendipity,’ ‘grace’]; for if by the one transgression all died, how much more [will] the kindness of god and the gift, by [this] kindness, of the one man, Jesus Christ, be more than enough for the many. 16 But the gift [is] not because [ως δια, ‘as if’] of the one who sinned; for judgement of [the] one led to condemnation [of all], but the free gift is for many transgressions [leading] to justification. 17 For if by the one transgression death ruled because of the one, much more will those who receive justice for [eternal] life [by] the overwhelming kindness and serendipity [δωρεας] [of god], rule,  because of the one, Jesus the Messiah.

18 Therefore then, since because of one transgression [it is such that there is] judgement for all men, thus also because of one [there is] justification for all men to the end that they are made righteous for [eternal] life; 19 wherefore, because of the disobedience of the one man many sins were established, thus also because of the obedience of the one, many justifications have been established.

20 Now, the law usurped, in order that transgression should perform a coup [πλεοναζω, ‘to claim too much, go to far’]; but where sin [greedily] overstepped, mercy well exceeded [it], 21 so that wherefore sin ruled by death, thus also mercy would rule because of justice [which leads] to eternal life because of Jesus Christ our lord.


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Romans 4

@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

4 1 What then shall we say was gained by Abraam our forefather by family? 2 For if Abraam was justified by means of actions he has a cause for boasting, but not before [‘in the presence of’] god. 3 For what does scripture say? “Abraam believed god and it was considered as justification for him.” [Gn 15:6] 4 Now, to the one who sets to work [for a wage] the payment is not considered against grace [favour unmerited] but against debt 5 but to the one who does not set to work putting faith in profane righteousness, his faith is counted as justification; 6 and moreover, David says, “blessed [is] the man whom god considers righteous without [‘apart from’] works,”

Blessed is the one whose lawlessness is forgiven
and [blessed] the one whose sins have been covered;
8 blessed the man whom the lord does not consider a sinner. 
[Ps 32:1-2]

9 Therefore, [is] this blessing upon the circumcised or also upon the uncircumcised? For we say, “faith was considered for Abraam as justification.” [Gn 15:6] 10 What then shall we say? Is it for the circumcision or for the uncircumcision? Not for the circumcision but for the uncircumcision; 11 and [so] he received the sign [σημειον] of circumcision as a signet [‘seal’] of justification by faith while in uncircumcision [‘while being uncircumcised’], to the end that he himself should be the father of all who believe while circumcised, so that it [their faith] would be considered as justification for them, 12 and [he should be] father of the circumcision, not only to those of the circumcision, but also to those who walk in the footsteps [‘who take the same course’] while in uncircumcision, of the faith of our father Abraam.

13 For not because of the law [was] the promise to Abraam or to his seed, which is his inheritance of the universe, but rather, [the promise was given] because of justification by faith. 14 For if [they were] heirs by law, [then] faith has been cancelled and the promise abolished; 15 for the law brings wrath into effect; but where there is no law, neither [is there] transgression. 16 On account of this, [justification is] by faith, in order that [it should be counted] against unmerited favour [‘grace’], to the end that the promise be confirmed for all the offspring, not to those of the law only but rather also to those of the faith of Abraam, who is father of us all, 17 it is therefore written οτι “Father of many nations I have made you,” [Gn 17:5] over against [or ‘in view of’] what he believed of god who makes alive those things which are dead and who calls forth things which are not, as things that are.

18 [Abraam] who, with hope against [all] hope, believed that it might be unto him “father of many nations” according to what [god] said, “Thus will be your offspring,” [Gn 15:5] and not being weak in faith against the fact that [κατενοησεν] his own body had already ‘died,’ when he was over a hundred years old, and [against] the dead womb of Sarah; 20 so that at the promise of god he did not depart in faithlessness but rather, was empowered by faith, giving [the] credit [‘glory’] to god 21 and [furthermore], he was fully persuaded [‘convinced’] that what [god] promised he was also able to do.

22 Wherefore also, “it was considered as justification for him.” [Gn 15:6] 23 Now, it was not written because of him only that it was considered to him [as such] but also because of us, whom he is about to consider [or ‘whom he is sure to consider’], [that is] those who believe in the one who raised Jesus our lord from death, 25 who was betrayed [‘given over’] because of our transgression and raised because of [or ‘for’] our justification.


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Romans 3


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

3 1 What then is the advantage of the Judean, or what the profit of the circumcision? Much in every way! First, that they were entrusted with the words of god. 3 So what? If some of them were unfaithful will their faithlessness cancel the faith of god? 4 Of course not! [μη γενοιτο, ‘may it never be’] Let god alone be truthful and every man a liar, as it is written,

You should be justified by your words
and made victorious when you are condemned
[Ps 51:4]

5 Now if our injustice strengthens god’s justness, what shall we say? God is not unjust when he imposes wrath [επιφερων την οργην, or poss. ‘takes vengeance’] is he? I speak as if to men. 6 Of course not! How then will god judge the world? 7 But if, on the other hand, the truth of god by my lie should abound for his glory, will I still be condemned as a sinner? 8 And it is not that, as we are being defamed and some are of the opinion [that] we are saying, “Let us do evil so that good may come,” is it?  Judgement of those who [are saying this kind of thing] is appropriate. 9 What then [shall we say]? Are we better [than they]? Not at all! for we have proven before that whether Judean or Greek, all are under [the curse] of sin, 10 as it is written οτι

There is not even one just person
11 not one who understands
not one who seeks after god.
12 All have turned away
they are altogether useless,
there is not one who performs
acts of kindness [‘mercy’],
not even one.
13 Their throats are an open tomb
they are treacherous with their tongues,
snake poison [‘venom’] is under their lips;
14 whose mouth is full of harassing curses
and sharp bitterness,
15 their feet are hasty to shed blood,
16 offensiveness and misery are in their ways,
17 and they do not know peace.
18 There is no fear of god in their eyes.

[Ps 14:1-3; Ps 53:1-3; Ec 7:20; Ps 5:9; Ps 140:3; Ps 10:7; Ps 36:1; Isa 59:7-8]

19 Now, we know that whatever the law says, it says to those who are bound by the law, in order that every mouth should be closed and all the universe be brought to trial by god; 20 therefore, they are not justified by works of the law, [that is] all flesh, before him, for because of the law sin is made known.

21 But now, apart from the law the justice of god has been openly demonstrated as testified by the law and by the prophets, 22 so the justice of god [is] through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no difference, 23 for all have sinned and come short of god’s glory 24 [and] justification is given [to us] by his kindness because of the redemptive price [paid] by Christ Jesus; 25 whom god tendered as a propitiation by faith [or ‘which works through faith’], [a propitiation made] in his blood as proof of his being justified on account of [the legal] remission of preexisting sins, 26 by the forbearance of god, serving as [προς την] proof of his justness, [and] by the foreordained time being now, so that he should be just and acquit by faith in Jesus.

27 Where then [is] the cause for boasting? Let it be humbled. [Is the cause of boasting] because of doing the law? Is it from works? Not any more, rather, it is because of the law of faith. 28 For we contend [that] by faith a man is justified apart from works of the law. 29 Is god that of the Judeans only? Is he not also god of the nations? Of course he is god of the nations, 30 in fact, [he is] one god who justifies the circumcision by [εκ] faith and the uncircumcision because of [δια] faith. 31 Therefore, will we lay aside the law because of faith? Of course not! Rather, we establish the law.


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.