Romans 15


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

15 1 Those of us who are capable owe it to those who are impeded by weakness to be supportive and not please only ourselves. 2 Each of us ought to please our neighbour for the sake of building up the good.  3 For Christ also did not please himself, but exactly as it is written, “The insults of your attackers fell upon me.” [Ps 69:9] 4 For whatever was previously written, was written for our teaching, so that because of the endurance and encouragement of the scriptures we might have hope.  5 And the god of endurance and encouragement will give you this same mindset among yourselves as Christ Jesus, 6 so that with one unanimous voice you might give glory to the god and father of our lord Jesus Christ.

7 For this reason, you ought to accept one another, just as Christ accepted you, for the glory of god. 8 For I say that Christ became a servant of the circumcision in behalf of [the] truth of god, in order to make absolutely certain of the promises of the fathers, 9 and [to make absolutely certain that] the nations, in behalf of the mercy of god might give him glory, exactly as it is written:

Because of this I will celebrate you among the nations and I will sing of your name. [Ps 18:49]

10 and again, he says:

Celebrate, oh nations, with his people! [Dt 32:43]

11 and again:

Praise the lord, all the nations and praise him even more, all the people! [Ps 117:1]

12 and again, Isaias says:

There will be a root of Jesse and one raised up to rule the nations, upon whom nations will place their hope. [Is 11:10]

13 And may the god of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that you might continue in hope in [the] power of [the] holy spirit.

14 I myself am convinced, my brothers, that you indeed are full of goodness, having been filled with all knowledge, and able to remind each other [of that fact].  15 And I wrote to you boldly for a while just to remind you because of the gift given to me by god 16 that I should be a ‘public servant’ [λειτουργον] of Christ Jesus to the nations, ‘priest’ of the gospel of god, so that the ‘offering’ of the nations might be acceptable, sanctified by the holy spirit. 17 Therefore, I have bragging rights in Christ Jesus in the presence of god; 18 for I do not dare to say anything which Christ did not fully realize [κατειργασατο, ‘accomplish’] through my words and actions so as to effect [εις] [the] obedience of [the] nations, 19 with the ability [to perform] signs and wonders, by the power of the spirit [of god, sic]; so that [the abounding need – I would argue that the use of the verb πληροω here implies the abounding need by explicitly stating it’s fulfillment, in the sense of ‘to satiate, satisfy,’ Liddell and Scott (1958), so…’the abounding need for] the good news of the Christ has been fully met by me, from Jerusalem and  surrounding [areas] up to Illurikou, 20 wherefore I aspire to proclaim the good news not where Christ has been identified, lest I should build upon another foundation, 21 but rather, as it has been written,

He will appear to those to whom [the good news] concerning him has not been proclaimed, and those who have not heard will [begin to] understand [συνιημι, connotation of ‘to come to an understanding,’ Liddell and Scott]. [Is 52:15]

22 Therefore also I have been hindered many times [in my efforts] to come to you; 23 and now, no longer having a place [to stay] in these precincts, and having [had] a longing for a considerable [number] of years to come to you, 23 [I will,] should I be going into Spain; for I hope to see you as I pass through and to be sent along [my way] there by you, first having had my fill of your company [υμων πρωτον απο μερους ἐμπλησθῶ] – 25 but now I am going to Jerusalem in service to the saints [there]. 26 For they were pleased in Macedonia and Achaia to make something of a contribution [κοινωνίαν τινὰ ] to the poverty-stricken saints in Jerusalem. 27 They were delighted indeed [και], for they are indebted to them; for if the nations are sharing in their spirituality, they ought also to share in their material needs [σαρκικοῖς λειτουργῆσαι, ‘to serve materially’]. 28 When this is completed and this contribution to them [is] determined, I will go up to Spain via you; 29 and I know that when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of Christ.

30 I would encourage you, [brothers, sic] because of our lord, Jesus Christ and because of the love of the spirit, to join me in the [spiritual] battle in [your] prayers to god in my behalf, 31 so that I might rescue [from disobedience, απο] those who are disobedient in Judea and my ministry to Jerusalem might become acceptable to the saints, 32 so that I might rest together with you in the joy of coming to you because of the will of god. The peace of god [be] with you all, amen.


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Romans 14


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

14 1 Help the one who is weak in faith, not arguing over points of disagreement [διακρισεις, ‘differentiation’].  2 While, on the one hand,  someone believes he can eat everything, the one who is weak eats [only] vegetables. 3 The one who eats ought not to scorn the one who does not, and the one who does not eat should not judge the one who eats, for god finds him acceptable.  4 Who are you to be judging the servant of another?  By [the decision of] his own master will he stand or fall; let him remain [as he is, ‘stand’] then, for the lord is able to sustain him.

5 [For, sic] while one [person] compares one day to another, someone else considers every day the same; let each be convinced in his own mind. 6 The one who honours the day honours it for the lord; and the one who eats, eats for the lord, for he gives thanks to god; and the one who does not eat, eats not for the lord but also gives thanks to god. 7 For no one lives for himself alone and no one dies for himself [alone]; 8 for if we live, we live for the lord, and if we should die, we will have died for the lord. Therefore, whether we live or die, we are the lord’s. 9 For because of this Christ died and yet lives on, in order that he might be lord over both the dead and the living.

10 Why then, do you judge your brother? Will you also scorn your brother? For everyone will stand at the judgement seat of god, 11 for it is written,

[As sure as] I am alive, says the lord, every knee will bow to me
and every tongue will agree that [I am] god.
[Is 49:18; 45:23]

12 So [then, sic] each of us will give an account of himself [to god, sic].

13 Let us no longer be judgmental with each other; rather, give more consideration to this, that is, to not place a cause of stumbling or scandal before [your] brother. 14 And I know and have been persuaded by [our] lord Jesus that nothing [is] unclean of itself, unless one considers a thing to be unclean, [then] to him [that thing] [is] unclean. 15 For if your brother is distressed because of meat, you are no longer behaving lovingly; do not destroy with your meat this one for whom Christ died. 16 Let your good [that you do] not be misinterpreted.

17 For the kingdom of god is not meat and drink but justice and peace and joy in the holy spirit; 18 for the one who serves Christ in this way [is] well pleasing to god and an excellent example [a ‘proof,’ δόκιμος] to men.  19 So then, let us pursue peaceful things and ways to build each other up. 20 Do not let the work of god be destroyed for the sake of meat.  On one hand, all things are clean, but because of the stigma of eating [some things are considered] evil to men. 21 Do not eat meat or drink wine or [do any thing] which may cause your brother to stumble, be scandalized or be made weak [inclusive of several mss, esp p46vid and Sinaiticus].

22 What faith you have, have [it] in the presence of god. Blessed is the one who does not judge himself by that [examination] with which he is being tested; 23 but the one who discriminates and doubts [διακρινομενος] whether he should eat has been condemned, because [his eating] is not by faith; and everything that is not of faith is sin.


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This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

Romans 13


@gamiliel on Instagram

Excerpt from my 2004 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans, which begins at To The Romans.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians, which begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

My 2004 translation of John’s gospel begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

13 1 Let every power conscious authoritarian who has power be subjugated [to god].  For there is no authority except under god, and all of those [authorities] have been set in place by god.  2 Therefore, since the one who rises against the authorities [which god has appointed] has opposed the divine order, those who have opposed [the authorities] will bring judgement upon themselves.  3 For rulers are not a terror to good works but to evil. You don’t wish to be afraid of authority, do you? Do good and you will have praise of it. 4 For [authority] is a servant of god to you, to the end that [it may cause you to do] the good. But if you should do evil, be afraid; for [a ruler] does not possess military authority [‘the sword’ την μαχαιραν] in vain.  For [authority] is an avenging servant of god to the end that wrath [might fall] on the one who practises evil. 5 Therefore, [authority] must be subjugated [under god], not only because of [it’s representing] the wrath [of god] but also for the sake of compliance [‘understanding,’ ‘consciousness’ συνειδησιν; συνειδω, sense of ‘accomplice;’]. 6 For this reason also, pay your taxes; for [authorities] are public servants of god, bound to this very task. 7 Fulfill all obligations, pay tribute, pay taxes, show respect [φοβος, ‘outward show’ of fear], give honor [to those who deserve it].

8 Do not ever be indebted except to one another in love; for the one who loves another has fulfilled the law. 9 For the [commandments], ‘Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not lust,’ [Ex 20:13-15, 17; Dt 5:17-19] and whatever other commandment, by this word have been encapsulated [which is, sic]: ‘Love your neighbour as yourself.’ [Lv 19:18] 10 Love causes no evil for the neighbour; therefore, love [is] the fulfillment of the law.

11 And we have perceived [ειδοτες, in light of the textual variant, ημας, which i chose from p46vid (III) and corrected Sinaiticus] this zeitgeist [καιρον], that [it is] already [the] hour to be raised from our delusion [υπνου, ‘hypnosis,’ ‘sleep’ or perhaps even ‘dream,’ ενυπνιαζω], for salvation [is] nearer now than [at that moment] when we believed. 12 The night [is] advanced, but day is near. Lay aside, then, the works of darkness, for we ought to be clothed in the armor of light. 13 We ought to go about as is appropriate in daytime, not carousing and intoxicated, not lying around and pernicious, not cantankerous and zealous for strife, 14 but be clothed with the lord, Jesus Christ, and do not make these carnal inclinations a priority.


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.

John 19: The Trial


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Excerpt from my 2004 translation of John’s gospel, which begins at Start With John, along with a brief explanation of my interpretive approach.

My 2012 translation of John’s first epistle begins at John A.

My 2015 translation of John’s second epistle begins at John B.

My 2015 translation of John’s third epistle begins at John Γ.

My 2015 and 2017 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians begins at To The Thessalonians A.

My 2015 translation of Paul’s letter to The Romans begins at To the Romans.

My 2004 translation of Paul’s first letter to the Korinthians begins at And Now For Something Completely Different….

My 2004 translation of Mark’s gospel begins at Mark 1.

19 1 Then Pilate took Jesus and whipped him. 2 And the soldiers, making a crown of thorns, placed it on his head and a garment of purple they wrapped around him [reference to Jonathan Maccabee, 1 Macc 10:59-66: After Jonathan was recognized by Demetrius as High Priest of Israel (1 Macc 10:32), “King Alexander wrote to Jonathan to come and meet him. Jonathan went in state to Ptolemais, where he met the two kings; he gave them silver and gold, and also made many gifts to their Friends; and so he won their favour. There were some scoundrelly…renegades who conspired to lodge complaints against Jonathan. The king, however, paid no attention to them, but gave orders for Jonathan to be divested of the garment he wore and robed in purple, and this was done. The king made him sit at his side, and told his officers to go with Jonathan into the centre of the city and proclaim that no one should bring any complaint against him or make any trouble for him whatsoever. When this proclamation was made and those who planned to lodge complaints saw Jonathan’s splendor, and the purple robe he wore, they all made off. Thus the king honoured him, enrolling him in the first class of the order of King’s Friends, and making him a general and a provincial governor. Jonathan returned to Jerusalem well pleased with his success” (The New English Bible with Apocrypha, Oxford Study Edition, Samuel Sandmel, et. al. eds., Oxford University Press, 1976). Jonathan was later put to death by Trypho, 1 Macc 13:23. Interestingly, his brother Simon Maccabee [cf. Simon Peter] became High Priest after his death. Pilate knows his history and presents Jesus, with heavy irony, as reminiscent of the great military Messiah, Jonathan Maccabee] 3 and they went up to him and were saying, “Hail the King of the Judeans;” and they gave him a beating.

4 And Pilate again went out and he says to them, “Behold I lead him out to you, so that you might know that I have found no guilt in him.” 5 Then Jesus went out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple garment. And [Pilate] says to them, “Behold the man!” 6 Then when they saw him, the chief priests and soldiers shouted, saying, “Crucify! Crucify!” Pilate says to them, “You take him and crucify him; for I have not found any guilt in him.” 7 The Judeans answered him, “We have a law and according to the law, it is an obligation to kill [him] because he made himself out to be a son of God.”

8 When Pilate heard this statement, he was very afraid, 9 and he went into the court again and he says to Jesus, “Where are you from?” but Jesus did not give him an answer.

10 Pilate then says to him, “Will you not speak to me? Don’t you know that I have authority to crucify you?” 11 Jesus answered, “You do not have authority over me one little bit except it was given you from above; because of this, the one who betrayed me has erred more greatly than you.”

12 From this Pilate sought to release him; but the Judeans shouted, saying, “If this one is released, you are not a friend of Caesar; everyone who makes himself king speaks against Caesar!”

13 Then Pilate, hearing these statements, led Jesus out and he sat down upon the seat in the place called Lithostroton [‘a seat of stone,’ the judgement seat], in Hebrew ‘Gabbatha.’ 14 It was the evening of the Passover, about the sixth hour. And he says to the Judeans, “Behold your King!”

15 Then they shouted, “Take him away, take him away, crucify him.” Pilate says to them, “Shall I crucify your King?” [Pilate taunts them, causing them to denounce God as King of Israel] The chief priests answered, “We have no King except Caesar!”

16 Then [Pilate] gave him to them, in order that he should be crucified. Then they took Jesus, 17 and bearing the cross himself, he went up to The Place of the Skull, which is to say, in Hebrew, “Golgotha,” 18 where they crucified him and with him two others, here and there [usu. trans. ‘one on either side’], and Jesus in the middle. 19 And Pilate wrote a title and put it on the cross, it was written, “Jesus the Nazarene, the King of the Judeans.” 20 Then many of the Judeans read this title, because it was near the area of the city where they crucified Jesus; and it was written in Hebrew, Latin, Greek. 21 Then the chief priests of the Judeans were saying to Pilate, “Do not write, “The King of the Judeans,” but that, ‘He said, “I am King of the Judeans.”‘” 22 Pilate answered, “What I have written, I have written.”

23 Then the soldiers, when they crucified Jesus, took his garments and made four portions, each soldier a portion, but the inner tunic [was left over]. Now the tunic was seamless, from the top woven throughout as a whole. 24 They said to each other, ‘let us not tear it, but rather cast lots concerning whose it should be;’ in order that the scripture should be fulfilled:

They divided my garments among themselves
and for my clothing they cast lots.
[Ps 22:18]

So then the soldiers did this.

25 Now standing before the cross of Jesus were his mother and the sister of his mother, Maria [wife of] Klopas, and Maria Magdalene. 26 Then Jesus, beholding the mother and the disciple whom he loved standing with her, says to the mother, “Woman, behold your son.” 27 Then he says to the disciple, “Behold your mother.” And from that hour the disciple took her as his own.

28 After this, Jesus knew that already all had been completed, [so] in order to complete [‘perfect’] the scripture, he says, “I thirst.” A vessel was there, full of vinegar; then taking a sponge full of the vinegar with hyssop they put it to his mouth. 30 Then, when he received the vinegar, Jesus said, “It has been completed,” and inclining [his] head, he surrendered the spirit.

31 Then the Judeans, who were there preparing lest the body should remain on the cross on the Sabbath, for that day of Sabbath was very important, asked Pilate if they could break his legs and take him down. 32 Then the soldiers went to the first and broke the legs and of the other of the ones being crucified with him. 33 But coming to Jesus, whom they knew had already died, they did not break his legs, 34 but one of the soldiers pierced his side with his lance, and [ευθυς] there came out blood and water. 35 And the one who saw this has testified and his testimony is true, and they know that one, that he [John the author? Is the implied narrator implying the narrator? John, the character, is present at the cross] speaks the truth, in order that you also might believe.

36 For these things happened so that scripture might be fulfilled:

His bones shall not be crushed. [Ex 12:46; Nu 9:12; Ps 34:20]

37 and again a different scripture says:

They will see the one whom they pierced. [Zech 12:10]

38 After these things, Joseph of Arimathaia, who was a disciple of Jesus, secretly because of the fear of the Judeans, asked Pilate if he could take the body of Jesus; and Pilate gave him over. He went then and took his body. 39 And then Nicodemos came, the one who came to him first by night, carrying a mixture of myrrh and aloe, about 100 pounds. 40 Then they took the body of Jesus and they wrapped him in linens with the aromatics, just as it is the custom of the Judeans to embalm. 41 And they were in the place where the garden was fenced and in the garden a new tomb in which no one had yet been placed; 42 so there, because of the traditional practice of the Judeans, because the tomb was near, they placed Jesus.


@gamiliel on Instagram

This translation was taken from The Greek New Testament, Kurt Aland, et. al. eds., Third Edition (corrected), United Bible Societies, (in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, Printed in West Germany by Biblia-Druck GmbH Stuttgart),1983.